عنوان مقاله [English]
Objective: Undoubtedly, thinking is a process, a process that has different elements and functions. One of the distinctive features of the process is dynamic rather than static. The process is a continuous and constantly changing movement that does not have a clear beginning and end. From the interaction of different elements and the combination of different functions, actions are formed in the mind, which is called "thinking". Comprehensiveness, flexibility, logical skepticism, intense curiosity, broad vision, deep thinking, open-mindedness, originality and freedom are the basic characteristics of a good thinking. Therefore, thinking does not take place in a vacuum, and in any form, it needs a context and a situation. The situation of imbalance, the motivation of curiosity, and a sense of trust are among the factors that play a fundamental role in creating the conditions of thinking. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of observance of Dubono's lateral thinking criteria in the intended curriculum of the second elementary school. According to the research question, firstly, the level of attention and lack of attention to the criteria and indicators of lateral thinking in the experimental science books of the second year of elementary school was examined and analyzed, and in the second activity, the degree of students' enjoyment of the criteria and indicators of lateral thinking and the relationship between lateral thinking and Academic standards were determined at the level of total score and basic dimensions. Considering the importance of thinking and its value, the main goal of this research is to identify the criteria and indicators of lateral thinking in the curriculum, in order to better use the different dimensions of lateral thinking in the curriculum, in the present study, the qualitative method is used before the quantitative method. Implementation and sequential exploratory design was used as one of the research strategies in the combined method. Quantitative research is a component-oriented approach to objectively describe variables and explain their relationships. In this section, the survey method will be used. This means that the attitude of quantitative, mathematical and digital perspective is dominant on such researches Krippendorf's content analysis was used to answer the research question, which is the level of compliance with the standards in the curriculum of the second year of elementary school. The research community to answer the research question "The level of attention to the criteria of lateral thinking in the experimental science book of the second elementary school" is the textbooks of the second elementary school (4th, 5th and 6th grade), published in 2018. From the total of 23 books, the selected sample is the content of the book of experimental sciences of the second year of elementary school, which was chosen because of its diverse topics for thinking and thinking, which is a total of three books in the second year of elementary school. For this purpose, a quantitative approach was used using the survey method.
Results: The results showed that only 25% of the identified criteria were observed in the textbook of experimental sciences of the second elementary school and despite the importance and possibility of teaching the rest of the criteria, compared to criteria such as 1. concept fan 2. random motivation 3. stimulation And movement 4. Product harvest 5. Motivation 6. Delayed judgment 7. Governing ideas and determinants 8. Random objects 9. Random word 10. Dealing with ideas has been neglected in compiling this book. The results showed that despite the importance of lateral thinking, unfortunately, not only the complete and appropriate presentation of criteria and indicators of lateral thinking in the textbook of experimental sciences of the second period has been neglected, but also in providing appropriate education and these criteria have been taught to students. Has not been. This has provided the ground for secondary school students to have a moderate level of performance in lateral thinking. It seems that the lack of attention to teaching the practices that enhance lateral thinking in the textbook of experimental sciences and the incomplete and non-practical presentation of these teachings, has provided the ground for the educational system and society with risky challenges in areas such as lack of creativity, formation of critical thinking and value thinking. To be. In our society, the most attention is focused on accumulating information. Anyone who has a strong memory is more appreciated than the one who can think better and more completely. Parents should teach their children how to think and think, and instead of filling their brains with reserves that they will not benefit from throughout their lives, they should try to teach them the right way of thinking and planning. The origin of people's thinking also goes back to the family. In a family that is sensitive to problems and their solutions, people choose the right way of thinking by recognizing the problems and considering the possibilities, choosing solutions based on the available possibilities and choosing the optimal solution. Involving parents in education can be an important factor for progress. Elliott and Huyson's researches have investigated the influence of parents on learning and academic progress, and the interest and motivation of reading in families that paid attention to reading is more than that of families that paid less attention to reading. One of the types of learning is cognitive learning according to which the child thinks in front of problems and offers a solution based on norms. In guidance and counseling to parents about children, they have put forward recommendations that include encouraging the use of new methods in solving problems, which seems that parents can use lateral thinking in this matter and be effective on their children's cognitive learning. And parents should help their children in making different decisions in life by learning lateral thinking techniques in providing solutions, creating motivation and academic guidance. Diagnosing the problem is one of the important and main tasks of counseling and plays a fundamental role in determining treatment methods, treatment process, solving the problem and achieving success. Combined, projective or subjective tests use lateral thinking and consider the person as a whole unit and ask questions in a vague and unstructured situation, and generally the participant is asked to give his perception to ambiguous stimuli. Since people's perception, goals, and feelings are one of the ways to determine personality traits, the analysis of clients' answers can reveal their inner thoughts and show their personality traits. The types of sentence completion, word association tests are of this type. This test provides valuable information to consultants. Lateral thinking can be used in using this test, so that it seems that lateral thinking plays a significant role in the development of talents and helps students to know themselves and their interests, and when counselors use lateral thinking techniques, It helps in expressing students' feelings and their interests and they can help to grow and strengthen their creative abilities, self-actualization and gain more and deeper insight into their weaknesses and strengths, help to predict the future situation of students, help to correctly diagnose the problem, determine the level of achievement The goals are to help formulate the hypothesis and check its validity and prevent it from making quick decisions. Consultants can also use lateral thinking in motivation. Many researches have been done on motivating students to learn and students' disinterest in studying, doing homework and trying to progress and grow academically. Educational theorists agree that students need motivation in order to understand well and learn well, and internal motivation is emphasized among the internal and external motivation factors, but in the ways of creating motivation, there are different methods of It has been presented by experts. One of the consequences of using lateral thinking is motivation. It appears to have a positive effect on both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. León Corrales discusses the need to improve writing skills, the students' motivation to learn, that by using lateral thinking, both students have learned writing skills and students' motivation to learn has increased. This researcher has detailed the effectiveness of lateral thinking in creating motivation and learning in his article.