نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکترای مدیریت آموزشی، واحد مرند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مرند، ایران.
2 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران.
3 دانشیار مدیریت آموزشی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Teachers play a key role in the application of technology in the educational system and have significant effects on academic progress, value system and technology, students' intellectual developments and beliefs related to technology. The use of technology in the educational system enables teachers to prepare, introduce, explain and transfer knowledge in order to strengthen, encourage and promote students to show better performance (Anderson and Streis, 2005). Research has shown that teachers have a central role in the integration of technology in the classroom, and their understanding and attitude towards technology is effective in forming students' attitudes and using it effectively for teaching and learning (Teo, 2009). The use of computers in education is not new, but technology can be a challenge for teachers. Considering the rapid rate of technology development, teachers constantly need to adapt to new technology and improve their skills in order to integrate technology, especially computer-based technology, in the classroom. Studies have shown that if teachers do not believe that the computer meets their and their students' needs, they will resist any attempt to introduce technology in teaching and learning (Behrouzi, 2013).
Information technology and digital technology can increase the transition in education through dynamic content, two-way action and catchy. Digital and communication technology has the capacity and ability to accelerate the empowerment and consolidation of skills. Digital technology and communication technology is now the most prominent tool of information creation and dissemination and can help to display information widely and make learners gain more confidence in the learning process effectively in all its levels communicate (An-Vusu et al., 2018). Digital and communication technologies play a vital role in countless areas; one of the areas where digital and communication technology is used is education and research (Aftekhar et al., 2019). By introducing computers in education as one of the most prominent technologies of the 21st century, this technology has valuable uses in new schools (Bess, 2017). So that the use of digital technology and communication in acquiring knowledge and skills has become a necessary element of education. Information and communication technology has many potential benefits, and by increasing the process of information exchange and reducing costs, it is a means to increase productivity, efficiency, competitiveness and growth in all areas of human activity (Mansourzadeh et al., 2017). .
The successful use of digital and communication technology systems, ranging from simple programs such as word processing and spreadsheets to more difficult programs such as electronic learning systems, requires user acceptance. By studying user acceptance and using this knowledge, user response can be predicted and systems can be modified to improve acceptance. Despite the previous research on this subject, the acceptance of information technology users is still difficult, ambiguous and at the same time very valuable (Pontija and Virili, 2010). Every year, organizations invest large sums of money in new technologies; If the users are not willing to accept these technologies and do not use the technology, the efficiency of this investment will decrease (Mohammadian, 2018). Therefore, technology acceptance is one of the most obvious issues in organizations, including the education, and by teachers.
Researches conducted in the field of information technology acceptance in Iran's educational system have mostly emphasized on quantitative methods with the aim of hypothesis testing; Such as the researches of (Amani Saribeglu et al., 2013; Ajei et al., 2014) which investigated the factors affecting the acceptance of information technology among teachers using the structural equation modeling method. In the meantime, the use of qualitative method for designing and validating the model of acceptance and use of technology by teachers has been neglected; Because according to Hossein and Brooks (2008), the status of information technology acceptance in educational systems is completely ambiguous and researchers do not have enough information about the variables involved in the acceptance of technology in these systems. They believe that many variables affect teachers' use of computers in the classroom, which cannot be investigated through quantitative research, and they suggest the use of qualitative research methods to solve this problem. In the current research, the design of technology acceptance model by teachers has been investigated with a qualitative method.
Considering that educational technology plays a major role in creating potential ability to improve the teaching-learning process. It is necessary to pay attention to the effects of technology, which include individualizing education, dealing with collective educational problems, creating equal educational opportunities (Kanad, Eveline and Asgemidt, 2014), providing continuous education, strengthening the role of the teacher, emphasizing the human aspects of education ( Schierer et al., 2020); Increasing the quality of learning or mastering it, reducing the time used by learners, increasing the efficiency of teachers according to the number of learners should be considered. Therefore, the attraction and decision to use technology also depends on various factors and indicators. In examining technology acceptance, it is necessary to examine various factors outside the education organization and the principles that overshadow the extent and manner of technology acceptance. Therefore, according to the contents that have been stated, the main issue of the current research is whether model designed for the acceptance of technology is valid?
The statistical population of this research included all valid scientific articles, doctoral dissertations, and master's theses in the field of acceptance and use of digital technology by teachers, according to a regular search in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Eric, Springer, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar search engines. , SID and Irandak were collected. Based on the entry criteria, 86 articles and theses were selected for the final analysis, and based on the exit criteria, 59 articles and theses were selected for the final analysis. After a semi-structured interview, experts in the field of curriculum planning and educational technology were used to collect data for data validity. In order to analyze the interviews, qualitative content analysis was used, and Gaff's (2013) six steps were used to analyze the texts. To determine the validity of the designed environment, the content validity ratio (CVR) and the value determined in the table based on the number of test participants were used. In this research, 4 themes of personal, environmental, technological and organizational contexts were obtained. Based on the values of the Lavshe table and according to the number of participants (12 people), the questions whose content validity ratio was more than 0.56 are acceptable. All the questions raised scored more than the value mentioned in the table of Lavshe. The average Laushe coefficient (CVR) for all the questions of the proposed model was estimated at 0.83, Therefore, the validity of the model of acceptance and use of digital technology by teachers was recognized as valid.
According to the validation of the model of acceptance and use of digital technologies, it has improved the processes of information processing, the optimal use of strategies over time, the expansion of cognitive processes, facilitating the transfer of cognitive skills, facilitating the processes of problem solving, self-motivation, self-sufficiency and The acquisition of cognitive processes and generalization and increase of attention and accuracy, or in other words self-regulation of learners in the learning process, and this effect created during training is almost constant over time and resistant to forgetting, and increases learning and Therefore, according to the approval of this model, the acceptance and use of technology according to the components and sub-components is of particular importance.