نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
دکتری مدیریت آموزشی و دانشجوی دکتری روانشناسی بالینی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد بینالمللی کیش، گروه پزشکی و پژوهشگر و مدرس دانشگاه
عنوان مقاله [English]
Objective: The content analysis of elementary school textbooks is based on decision-making and problem-solving skills. Research shows that teaching life skills helps to improve the mental health of children and adolescents in different dimensions of life and is considered one of the most basic preventive programs at the primary level. The best place and situation for life skills training is the path of education in education, which accompanies the child from preschool age to higher levels of higher education. Schools transfer these skills to students through the content of textbooks. Evaluating the content of textbooks, in addition to helping to increase their efficiency and effectiveness, can lead to the desired realization of educational goals. Research studies have shown that many students lack the necessary skills and abilities to face life issues, and traditional and conventional education in the form of in-school learning has not been able to help them solve life issues. Therefore, the quality process in primary schools is important as the starting point for the effectiveness of the educational system, and it seems that teaching a number of life skills should be included in primary textbooks. According to the background check, a comprehensive research related to content analysis of all primary school books has not been done. Therefore, the present research, which includes all the books of the six primary education levels; It is also taking steps in order to solve this gap and fill the gap in the existing background. Therefore, this research seeks to answer the following questions:
1 To what extent have primary school textbooks paid attention to teaching decision-making skills?
2 How is the importance factor and prioritization of decision-making skill indicators?
3 To what extent have primary school textbooks paid attention to teaching problem solving skills?
4 How is the importance factor and prioritization of problem solving skill indicators?
What is the level of attention paid by primary school textbooks to teaching decision-making and problem-solving skills according to the level of education (1st to 6th grade) and textbooks?
The basis of the materials used in teaching life skills is the information obtained from the way of learning through observing the behavior of others and its consequences, and it is actually based on Bandura's social learning theory (1977). The theory of risk and resilience explains why some people respond better to the pressures and problems of everyday life than others. The theory of flexibility refers to internal factors such as self-esteem, the source of internal control and external factors such as social and family support as protective factors that make a person resistant to the dangers of poverty, anxiety and substance abuse. The theory of constructivism is derived from the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, who consider the comprehensive to be important in the construction and interpretation of knowledge. In this approach, each learner actively builds their knowledge based on what they know, and the teaching method is group and collaborative. Basically, constructivism is a theory based on observation and scientific study, about that; How does a person learn? This theory believes that humans build their understanding and knowledge through experiencing things and thinking about experiences. This process is necessary for learning problem solving, reasoning, critical thinking, active and thoughtful use of knowledge
Method: Descriptive and content analysis. The statistical population is all the textbooks of the primary education course (sixth grade) of the academic year 1399-99. Census sampling method was used and all elementary school books (41 volumes, 4947 pages) were reviewed and analyzed. The measurement tool was a researcher-made content analysis checklist, the validity of which was verified using the opinion of experts and its reliability was verified using the method of intra-subject agreement between the two coders. Data were analyzed using the three Shannon entropy steps.
Findings: In all pages of elementary school textbooks, the subject of decision-making and problem-solving skills has been discussed 755 times, of which; The highest attention with 403 frequency (53.4%) is related to "problem solving" skill and the lowest attention with 352 cases (46.6%) is related to "decision making" skill. In elementary school textbooks, the highest coefficient of importance is related to "decision making" skill (0.2221) and the lowest is related to "problem solving" skill with a coefficient of 0.502. The first grade has 5 book titles, which are 64 times (8.5%) in total; Second grade with 6 titles 92 (12.2%); Third, fourth and fifth grades with 7 titles 118 (15.6%) respectively; 134 (17.8%) and 128 times (17%) and the sixth grade with 9 titles, 219 times (29%) mentioned decision-making and problem-solving skills. The most attention to the total skills is related to the book "Mathematics" with 131 frequencies (17.4%) and the least attention to "Quran teaching" with 80 frequencies (10.6%). The book "Persian" in a total of six bases, 81 times; "Persian writing" 99; "Experimental Sciences" 105; "Teaching the Qur'an" 80; "Mathematics" 131; "Heavenly Gifts" 108 and "Social Studies" have dealt with these skills 102 times in total.
As observed, learning and familiarizing elementary school students with life skills is an inevitable necessity. The results show that primary school books have paid less attention to the teaching of "decision-making" skills; On the other hand, based on the results obtained by Shannon's entropy method, the skill of "decision-making" has been recognized as important, so it is suggested to pay enough attention to teaching these skills along with other life skills in the reprinting of elementary school textbooks. The least attention is paid to the sum of decision-making and problem-solving skills related to the book "Teaching Quran". Curriculum planners and authors of textbooks should review this book and consider issues related to life skills. According to the content analysis, in some books of each grade level, the least attention has been given to teaching decision-making and problem-solving skills, it is suggested that these books should also be reviewed in terms of life skills. The findings of this plan will be useful for the Ministry of Education and the organization of writing and compiling elementary school textbooks and all teachers and curriculum planners. One of the problems of this research was the wideness of the statistical population and examples of life skills. Considering that 41 textbooks and nearly 5 thousand pages were analyzed. This work was a time-consuming process that was analyzed page by page by several trained teams, and the problem of the scope and time-consuming nature of the work was well managed.