نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت کارآفرینی دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران
2 دانشیار گروه کارآفرینی و توسعهی روستایی دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران
3 استادیار گروه کارآفرینی و توسعهی روستایی دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Entrepreneurship education is a process of preparing people with the ability to recognize business pills, self-esteem, knowledge, skills and insights to act on them (Olugbola, 2017). Many experts believe that one of the main factors determining the level of entrepreneurship in any country is entrepreneurship education (Valerio et al, 2014).Acquiring the power or skill that leads to entrepreneurship with the provision of environmental factors is the most important fruit of entrepreneurship education (Oconnor, 2013). Entrepreneurship education is an empowering tool that provides the knowledge, skills, attitudes and experience needed to meet life's challenges (Mamman, 2014). In fact, entrepreneurship education refers to all activities that aim to flourish entrepreneurial mentality, attitudes and skills in a range of areas such as idea generation, startups, growth and innovation (Nyello et al, 2015). Research also shows that entrepreneurship education is one of the important factors that lead to an increase in entrepreneurial attitudes in both potential entrepreneurs and emerging entrepreneurs (2014 Hattab,). Lonappan et al (2011) classify entrepreneurship education methods in their classification, including case study, group discussion, individual presentation, individual report writing, group project, lecture, guest speaker, seminar, web-based learning. And introduce the recorded video. Learning by lecturing is inevitable for everyone at some point in time because it is a good tool for providing basic information and transferring experimental sciences and even in some cases the most appropriate teaching method. But in this method, the student is not given the opportunity to think, which is essential in learning (Love, 1990). This teaching method has a one-way mode and the explanation and description of phenomena by the teacher or professor has a major role and is teacher-centered. The main purpose of this method is knowledge transfer (Alizadeh, 2009 Fathiazar, 2011,). Despite the common method of teaching lectures in most universities in the country, about 80% of the training provided by this method is forgotten during 8 weeks (Azizi, 2003). Therefore, in recent decades, the need to revise traditional teaching methods and use new and active methods of learning and student-centered has been felt by the educational system and the application of these methods has become common in various sciences (Love, 1990).
Also, the results of the study of Karimi et al. (Karimi et al., 2014) show that entrepreneurship education has not been able to improve the ability of learners to identify business opportunities using common and traditional teaching methods. Therefore, despite the growing need for entrepreneurship education, this type of education is still immature and has not been able to meet the educational and practical needs of learners as it should and perhaps, both in terms of content and in terms of teaching tools and methods. Deficiencies (2014 Bellotti et al,). Adjeji and Rahman (2018) in a study have reviewed the background of innovative methods of entrepreneurship education and introduced the method of using guest speakers as one of the innovative methods for entrepreneurship education (Adedeji & Rahman, 2018). Teaching by "guest speaker" method is another common educational method, especially in entrepreneurship education. This method (guest speaker) has been introduced as one of the effective methods in entrepreneurship education studies (Neck & Green, 2011). The guest entrepreneur lecture gives the opportunity to get acquainted with their life story. People's life stories tell of their experiences and fateful decisions in life (Atkinson, 1998). Entrepreneurs' life stories show how they have found their way to success in work life and the real business market (Rea & Carswell, 2001). Hills (1988) also sees guest entrepreneurial lectures as a way to boost students' confidence to become entrepreneurs. He believes that the entrepreneur, as the guest speaker, brings to the student's mind the thought that "if he can, I probably can too. Gartner & Vesper (Gartner & Vesper, 1994) refer to the guest entrepreneur lecture as a "living case" for reading. Shepherd (2004) introduces this type of lecture as an indirect way to enhance the student experience. The guest speaker entrepreneur can explain to students his or her experience of failure and the emotions he or she was experiencing at the time, and how to manage those emotions in order to experience failure rather than frustration and confusion (Shepherd, 2004). Using entrepreneurs to talk about their experiences of failure and success can be used as a live case study that can be effective in two areas. The first is content; Such as marketing, sales, product development, capital gain. The second is the role and focuses on the process and activities that the entrepreneur has done. It is better to use more guest speaker for role training; Because there are so many educational resources about content, books and magazines (Gartner & Vesper, 1994).
Purpose: This study was a semi-experimental research with two groups using pre-test and post-test with the aim of comparing two teaching method of lecture and guest speaker in learning business and entrepreneurial skills of trainees in Eyvan Woman Technical and Vocational Training Center.
Method: This research was a semi-experimental and pre-test post-test with control group.In this regard, 30 female tailoring trainees of this center were divided in two control and experimental groups with using random assignment method. Lecture teaching method was used for control group and method of guest speaker was used for experimental group. The business and entrepreneurial skills of trainees of both groups, before and after teaching, were compared together by a questionnaire including 50 questions with 13 subscales based on a 5- point Likert scale. To analyze the research hypotheses, the two independent samples t-test was used by SPSS software. In this research, two groups were compared with each other in terms of entrepreneurial skills, preparation to enter the business, financing methods, start up business, marketing skills, sales skills, service skills, communication skills, skills in finance and accounting, business consolidation, skills decision-making, management skills and human resource skills.
Findings: The results showed that except of human resources skill, in other twelve cases, in the experimental group, mean of scores was significantly higher than the control group. It is recommended that educational planners use the guest speaker at training business, technical and vocational skills.