آسیب‌شناسی آموزش آب در درس «انسان و محیط‌زیست» (پایه یازدهم، متوسطه دوم)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آموزش محیط‌زیست، گروه برنامه‌ریزی، مدیریت و آموزش محیط‌زیست، دانشکده محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط‌زیست، پژوهشکده آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به بحران آب در ایران، آموزش الگوی مصرف مسؤولانه آب به دانش‌آموزان ضروری است. هدف پژوهش حاضر، سنجش محتوای آموزش آب در درس «انسان و محیط‌زیست» پایه یازدهم، دوره دوم متوسطه و بهبود کیفیت ارائه آن است. این مطالعه براساس نوع داده‏‌ها، کمی و از لحاظ نوع برخورد با مسئله، کیفی است. طرح کلی پژوهش آمیخته حاضر تبیینی یا اصطلاحاً تشریحی بود. در فاز اول با رویکرد توصیفی-پیمایشی داده‌های کمی استخرج و در فاز دوم برای توضیح بیشتر و آشکار کردن برخی جنبه‌های ابهام‌انگیز موضوع از رویکرد کیفی بهره گرفته شد. در بخش کمی برای جمع‌آوردی داده‌ها، از پرسشنامه محقق‌ساخته استفاده شد. مفاهیم پرسشنامه با تاکید بر طبقه‌بندی بلوم، اهداف کلی تعریف شده برای آموزش آب در کتاب راهنمای معلم درس «انسان و محیط‌زیست» و مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته تنظیم و پاسخ‌دهی به گویه‌های آن در طیف پنج گزینه‏‌ای لیکرت سامان داده شد. روایی صوری و محتوایی به تایید هشت خبره ذی‌صلاح رسید و پایایی آن با ضریب آلفای کرانباخ (75/0) تصدیق شد. براساس فرمول کوکران 384 دانش‌آموزان مورد پرسشگری قرار گرفتند. در بخش کیفی پژوهش پنل تخصصی باحضور کارگزاران اصلی نظام آموزشی (5 معلم و 20 دانش‌آموز) تشکیل و راهکارهایی پیشنهاد شد. جهت اعتباریابی، برونداد نظرات پانل دلفی، به 3 خبره‌ی دارای صلاحیت ارائه و پس از جرح و تعدیل، تایید نهایی شد. نتایج نشان داد آموزش آب در این کتاب، در سطوح پایین یادگیری هر دو حیطه «شناختی» و «عاطفی» به طور نسبی اتفاق افتاده، اما در سطوح میانی و غایی هر دو حیطه، ناکام است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Criticism Study on Water Education in “Man and the Environment” Course Curriculums (11th grade, 2nd highschool)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amirali Boroumand 1
  • Mahdi Kolahi 2
1 Master Student of Environmental Education, Department of Planning, Management and Environmental Education, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Faculty member of Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Water and Environment Research Institute, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

It is necessary to teach students water consumption responsibility because of the water crisis in Iran. This paper aims to evaluate the content of water education in the course of “Man and the Environment” in the eleventh grade, second year of highschool, and to improve the quality of its concepts, by mixed quantitative and qualitative approaches. This study is quantitative based on the type of data and qualitative in terms of the type of approach to the problem. The quantitative part is surveyed with the descriptive-survey approach and the qualitative part with the analytical approach. In the quantitative part, a researcher-made questionnaire was conducted to collect data. The concepts of the questionnaire were organized with an emphasis on Bloom's classification, general objectives defined for water education in the book of the “Man and the Environment”, and semi-structured interviews with experts in the two sections of cognitive and emotional in the format of a five-point Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by face and content-related validities, and its reliability with Cronbach's Alpha coefficient (0.75). A sample of 384 out of 429,175 students of the 11th grade was surveyed according to the Cochran's formula. In the qualitative part of the research, a Delphi specialized panel was also formed to find the root of the problem, and finally, the solutions were suggested and explained in the six topics by the experts. However, the results showed that although water education of the book has occurred at low levels of learning in both cognitive and emotional domains, it has failed at the intermediate and final levels of both domains.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental Education
  • Curriculum
  • sustainable development
  • Water Resources Management