نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه ریزی آموزش ازدور، دانشگاه پیام نور،تهران، ایران
2 استاد گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران
3 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران
4 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Objective: Lack of providing optimal and timely use of new technologies in the field of literacy has changed into a belief in the countrywide illiteracy eradication programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran.This reality reflects the significant impact of new technologies on learning and requires strategic changes in the planning system (such as changes in the EdTechtools from unimedium to multimedia) and changes in the teaching methods in general (from traditional approaches to new approaches, which are usually technology-based ones). Literacy education is offered in the ages rangingfrom 10to 49 years in Iran in the form of three courses : literacy, maintenance and transferwhich havetheir own goals and contents. The transition period is considered as a period providing the opportunity for those who have completed the literacy coursesand also for those who do not qualify for further education in the formal education system. A two-hundred-hour teaching program has to be designed and implemented through virtual education or self-teachingprogramsduring the transition time based on the article 10 of the Educational Structure of the Literacy Movement, approved in the 833rd session of the Higher Education Council. This is considered as an opportunity for the planners and educators to take advantage of e-learning and virtual education to help them achieve the goals of the transition period. Although various virtual education models have been used to explain and plan educational activities to achieve success in virtual education programs in recent years, there has been no observed patterns of education and learning for low-educated adults. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to present and validate the virtual education model of adult learners in the transition period. To achieve these goals, three questions were raised: 1. What are the components of the adult virtual education? 2. What are the components of the initialdesigned model? 3.What are the experts’ points of view regarding the validity of the designed model?
Methodology: The present surveyhas been conductedthrough anexplanatory sequentialwhich is basically considered as a kind of mixed-method. Sample size and sampling procedurecriterion, data collection and analysiswere different in different levels and stages of the survey because of the use of the theoretical sampling method. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and interpret the qualitative data. The collected data were analyzed, categorized, organized, and classified using this analytical method. Major categories were extracted and presented in a conceptual model. At first 12 components and 34 sub-components were extracted from the qualitative data based on the documentary and library studies, then the virtual teaching model was developed and presented to the experts for the validation process. In the quantitative part of the survey, the experts validated the model using an electronic questionnaire.
Results:The findings of the analysis of the first question results led to the extraction of the components of the virtual education for the transition students. These components include the virtual literacy teaching, adult literacy features, learning position and teaching elements, learning principles, learning culture, learning environment, learning experiences, objectives, content, teaching methods and assessment. The findings of the second question led to the formulation of a conceptual framework from the initial model of the survey. The initial model consisted of three main components :literacy characteristics, learning status and teaching elements. Regarding the importance of the role of the individuals involved in the teaching and learning process as well as his major role as the most influential factor in his own learning, a component called adult learnerhas beenconsidered at the top of the model. On the other hand, in a new definition, the ability to make change is the criterion of literacy. Accordingly, although learning is often considered as a cognitive activity that happens in mind, it also has cultural origins which is the basis for the formation of interaction between learners, the interaction between the learner and the teacher, and also the changes in the learner's view of the content of learning. These factors represent the formation of a learning culture. The findings of the third question were plotted in a conceptual model. The adult learner in this literacy model is placed in the center of the model and the other factors are considered as the subsidiary ones located around this important and crucial factor. Compared to the existing models, this model has advantages such as consideringthe adult learner at the center of the model, paying more attention to the time andspace of learning, considering planning principles, as well as focusing on the psychology and philosophy of adult education. In the present model, due to the nature of the virtual education and distance education and the central role of the learner, with his literacy at the center of the model, special attention has been paid to his self-direction which actually leads him to an effective teaching-learning environment.
Considering the occupational and family limitations, the adult learner has no limitation on learning time in virtual education and can learn at any time during his leisure or free time. Based on the pedagogical approach and in the age of concepts, the leaning space has removed the limitations of the classroom, school, and any physical dimensions of teaching space. In addition, in virtual education, space is a concept rather than being a place. There is more freedom and more domination in the learning environment. As the concept of learning space evolves, new types of interactions, such as the interaction of content with content, also emerge which enhances the learner's interaction with the content and motivates the learner resulting in removing the traditional teaching and learning gaps. The learning space also allows teachers to play a facilitating role in the learning process for learners and to push education towards new ways of learning.
The validity of the present model was evaluated by experts. Expert responses with an average of 4.40 of the responses indicate that the model is appropriate. The t-test results were also significant at 95% confidence level for all the questions. Based on the findings of this study, the designed model is valid enough to be used for adult learners in the transition period of the virtual education. In future surveys, the validity and effectiveness of this model can be evaluated from the perspectives of literacy students as the most important learning factor and also from the points of view of literacy teachers.This model is the first model developed for adult virtual education; therefore, more surveys have to be conducted to address its potential drawbacks.