نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 مدرس دانشگاه فرهنگیان و دکتری مطالعات برنامه درسی، خوی، ایران.
2 استادیار دانشگاه فرهنگیان و دکتری مطالعات برنامه درسی، خوی، ایران.
3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد و دبیر آموزش و پرورش، مرند، ایران.
4 آموزگار دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد و آموزگار ابتدایی، مؤسسه آموزش عالی میعاد، مهاباد، ایران.
5 کارشناسی آموزش ابتدایی دانشگاه فرهنگیان، خوی، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of this study was to investigate the main characteristics of the Lesson Study process in order to improve the teachers' capabilities in the implementation of curricula in the elementary school. The approach of qualitative research was inductive content analysis with an emphasis on self-understanding. The participants were female student-teachers of Farhangian University of Shahid Motahari in Khoi city in the academic year of 1400-1401, 18 of them who had the experience of working in the research and professional development curriculum 3 (Lesson Study) and internship 4 (Lesson Study in the classroom) They were selected with the purposeful sampling method of the index sampling type. In the data analysis stage, 296 primary themes were extracted from the total interviews and in the next stages, the number of components was reduced by removing similar and close themes and finally 9 main themes, 25 secondary themes and 177 primary themes were obtained. To ensure the accuracy and validity of the obtained findings, the text of the interviews was simultaneously examined and described more deeply during the implementation of data collection to obtain more real concepts and meaning. Also, the interviews of individuals were reviewed and analyzed and created themes by the researcher himself on several occasions. In order to determine the stability and reliability of the obtained data, two people worked simultaneously and in parallel in the process of coding and analyzing the data, and the results of the coding work were compared and the most appropriate concepts were selected.The findings of the research show that the indicators of synergistic, synthesis, research, self-education, teaching discourse, metacognition, problem-oriented, teaching feasibility and bio-education provide a framework for the Lesson Study activities of teachers, with which it is possible to better implement the content of curricula. will be In fact, framing in Lesson Study specifies the process of teaching implementation in different situations And creates the awareness that teaching is influenced by the planned activities of teachers and their background factors, and the implementation of curriculums should consider the realization of the educational goals of the developed content as dependent on the skills that provide the platform for their growth and development. In other words, Lesson Study as a process activity of the teacher-researcher tries to develop the curriculum and its related elements through a systematic approach. In other words, each of the elements of the curriculum is affected by the activities related to Lesson Study, in such a way that considering Lesson Study as a research activity in teaching, all the things before, during and after teaching are affected by the quality of the implementation of these activities. Also, on the other hand, Lesson Study by analyzing each of the curriculum elements and evaluating how they are implemented in educational practice or learning situations, emphasizes their compliance with the three sources of the curriculum (subject matter, learner and society). This type of research, by determining the nature of educational concepts based on three sources of the curriculum, predicts and provides the type of content presentation that is appropriate to the level of students' activity and how to learn it, so that in line with the implementation of the curriculum, by evaluating the teacher's qualifications, subject matter, Learner capabilities and implementation conditions determine the responsibility for how students learn course material. In this situation, it becomes important to choose a teaching method that can advance the goals of the curriculum in accordance with the structure of courses, the needs of the society, or the interests and abilities of the learners. The capacity of Lesson Study in improving curricula is based on the structuring of teaching as a whole for its better preparation in the direction of creating opportunities for learning, which aims to get out of the monotony of the implementation of programs and seeks the sustainability of lessons learned. In connection with the primary school curricula, it should be said that the optimal implementation of Lesson Study and coordination with the objectives of this course is to emphasize the achievement of the type of implementation of programs that will be the motivation and stimulus for more involvement of students in cognitive, attitudinal, and skill areas, and this way of thinking is also It is related to the optimal balance between the macro level and the micro level of the curricula, in the sense that by This means that by specifying the source of the curriculum, the teaching researcher should guide the implementation process of each of the components of the programs in line with the defined goal to the compatibility of the curriculum elements with the goal derived from that source.In general, Lesson Study specifies the approach to the implementation of curriculum according to the nature of the thoughts that it acquires in the way of teaching, and by using the original understanding of the educational realities of students, it emphasizes how and the quality of teachers' adaptation to these conditions. Quality that curriculum improvement is done by organizing the micro level with the macro level and leads to the creation of a balanced curriculum that can meet the needs of stakeholders and educational audiences. It can be said that Lesson Study as a tool for implementing curricula seeks the quality of the implementation process in the framework of engineering teacher activities, in other words, the indicators obtained show that by drawing such elements in Lesson Study, the conditions can be prepared for the implementation of programs. Therefore, by analyzing the situations before the implementation of the curricula, the teaching researchers standardize these situations with what is intended by the teachers and try to provide the platforms for the implementation of the curricula through Lesson Study. In this situation, what is observed is that Lesson Study is not only about how to teach, but it is about harmonizing this process with the content of the curricula and their mutual compatibility with each other in order to help implement the goals through the programs through the construction of a suitable combination. In other words, Lesson Study is proposed as a catalyst (accelerator) in the teaching of curricula by teachers, which realizes the sustainability of learning by accelerating the process of exploration in lesson conceptualizations.Therefore, this research process instills a mindset to teachers in which teachers view teaching and curriculum in an integrated framework and transform the theoretical foundations of the content (curriculum) into its practical foundations (teaching), in the sense that Functionalization of theoretical ideas is provided through implementation in classrooms, depending on the process of studying and examining how to present curricula and the nature of assignments. As a result by drawing the framework of Lesson Study components, it is necessary to provide the ground for the purposeful connection of this process with the elements of the curricula in order to create a suitable balance in the estimation of the design of the curriculum levels and the conditions to achieve the desired implementation of the programs and achieve the expected results.