عنوان مقاله [English]
With the emergence of information and communication technology, the evolution of education tools and methods in order to create that every person can learn at any time and in any place with his own facilities and in the time period he sets aside. Information technology is progressing and transforming the world, which the past history of considering the future era as the "communication era", some studies and thinkers called the future era "virtual era". Because information technology can make a virtual counterpart for every fact or phenomenon.
E-learning has emerged as one of the most important applications of information and communication technology in the world in recent decades. This type of training, which is called as training without the need for physical presence, is a new method in the training process with the help of new technologies and relying on information technology tools. In e-learning, face-to-face training is completely simulated and presented offline and virtually. This educational method can be held simultaneously (live) and asynchronously. In the simultaneous method, the exchange of information between the trainer and the trainee takes place live and in real time. Simultaneous education provides the possibility of student and teacher interaction as well as discussion and question and answer during teaching and learning.
The global epidemic of the new corona virus, which is considered as a severe acute respiratory syndrome and a threat to the health and lives of millions of people around the world, caused governments and public health systems to declare a state of emergency and take extensive measures to prevent contract this disease (Garfin & Et al. 2020). Although the outbreak of Covid-19 has challenged most of the health and treatment systems of different countries, it has also affected other fields, including the field of education. have given. With the peak of Covid-19, health protocols emphasized the observance of social distancing, and in this regard, face-to-face education in schools and universities was declared closed in many countries, and the process of formal education was transferred to homes (Haji & et al. 2021).
Virtual space facilitates access to data and useful materials for students; It also has the potential to make content that is not suitable for their age easily accessible to them (McFarlane. 2011). Therefore, the supervisory role of parents becomes more prominent and they must manage the way their children use technology (Curtis. 2013; Borup & Et al. 2014). Beyond the main contribution of the teacher, the responsibility of parents is also intensified in virtual education and some One of the teacher's duties is assigned to them, and they must not only monitor the amount of students' studies, but also monitor and measure the efficiency of learning. Also, if the student is not able to keep up with the pace of the teacher's teaching, they should try to solve his problem (Cai & Wang. 2020).
In other words, before this, it was expected that the management and supervision of the students' education was with the parents of the school and that the families would support the school in this way, but in this era, the shifting of roles caused the relationship between home and school to suffer. Make fundamental changes. Before, it was the responsibility of the school to provide facilities and conditions for learning, discipline and discipline were established by the school, but now it is the parents who have to do part of the school's duties.
According to what was said, despite the importance of parents' role on students' learning and improving their performance, also the effect of parents' supervision and management in preventing the physical and mental dangers that may arise in the absence of them for students to arise in the virtual space, the results of the investigations show that almost all the researches done in the field of teaching in the virtual space are related to teachers or students and a study that is coherent and purposeful on There is no focused parenting. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the experiences of parents in relation to teaching in the virtual space and the challenges they faced, as well as the solutions they considered for them, in order to provide strategies to increase the quality of teaching in the virtual space. For this reason, in the present research, we analyze the lived experiences of parents from teaching in virtual space.
Materials and Methods
The research method was qualitative with a phenomenological approach. The researched community was all the parents of Kermanshah city. The sampling method was purposeful and the research tool was semi-structured interview. The analysis of data was done based on thematic analysis and with an interpretive approach. The data were examined and analyzed in three stages of open coding, central coding and selective coding. occurred.
Discussion and conclusion
According to the interviews conducted and the analyzes conducted, parents have different definitions and experiences of virtual education and consider their support and capabilities very effective in implementing this type of education. They also believe that obstacles and limitations To implement this type of training, if they are solved, this training can be considered as a good alternative to face-to-face training and take advantage of its benefits, but if they implement virtual training regardless of these obstacles and limitations, this type of training It can lead to irreparable problems and consequences.
The results were drawn in four graphs under the title: definitions and characteristics of parents about virtual education, ability and competence of parents in this type of education, experiences of parents' participation and challenges of parents' inability in optimal virtual education.
Definitions include: lack of time and place limitations, education by multimedia, increase in media literacy, lack of interaction and reduction of social communication, reduction of motivation and social responsibility, and cost-effective education.
Competence includes: monitoring and taking care of children, cooperation of parents with teachers, cooperation and guidance in the process of education and teaching, attendance at familiarization courses with virtual education. Experiences include: increasing parents' awareness of the education process, the challenge of students' dependence on technology, students' dependence on their parents, and involvement in the process of students' education.
The challenges of parental disability include: socio-moral problems, creating family problems and academic failure.