نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استاد مدیریت آموزشی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.
2 دانشجوی مدیریت آموزشی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting academic procrastination and attitude to cheating, which can play an effective role in students' academic achievement. Understanding this importance, the present study has been conducted with the aim of the relationship between ethics and academic procrastination and attitude to cheating. The students of each society, as the efficient and future creators of each country, are a group that occupies a major part of the planning and budget of each country. The most important indicator of the efficiency of science and the most prominent indicator of what an educational system should do is the academic progress of learners, so the success of any educational system depends on the extent to which that system has been able to achieve the expected performance (Ghanbari and Sultanzadeh, 2016). One of the issues that can be seen in the behavior of students today is cheating. Cheating is one of the common unethical phenomena in educational systems, which has become increasingly easier and popular with the development of new technologies. Cheating in educational situations often takes place in the form of cheating in exams and cheating in homework (Amiri &Khamesan, 2011). Cheating or deception is a common immoral phenomenon in the educational systems that have become increasingly facilitated and prevalent with the development of new technologies. Academic cheating is any deceptive or fraudulent attempt to evade the rules, standards, practices, customs, and norms to obtain unfair benefits or to protect the person who has cheated. Academic cheating is defined as the presentation of immoral and dishonest behavior by students to achieve academic success (Afzali et al., 2020). If we do not think about fighting fraud and preventing its spread, we will eventually reach a point where the university has a large number of outputs each year that cannot play their effective and desirable role and have been shown to meet the expectations and needs of society. Dealing with deceptive academic behaviors is important because people who commit academic cheating often transmit this inappropriate behavior to their work environments after graduation. Since the prevalence of cheating has the potential to place great constraints on the flourishing of individual and institutional talents, it should not be treated as a trivial form of deviant behavior (Laripour et al., 2021). Procrastination is one of the most troubling issues in today's societies that has attracted the attention of many researchers and reduces academic motivation and performance (Narimani et al., 2017). One of the major challenges of the educational process is academic procrastination, which has been mentioned as one of the most serious problems of daily life and education in educational systems (Ghosh and Roy, 2017). Procrastination makes sense in both individual and collective affairs. Finally, it can be said that in all these meanings lies a kind of hand and that hand (Haghani et al., 2016). Academic procrastination or procrastination refers to the predominant tendency of learners to delay academic activities and goals to the extent that it affects optimal performance (Han and Groshit, 2018). Various psychological factors can cause the emergence of academic procrastination. Anxiety, dependence, hatred of tasks, fear of failure, fear of negative evaluation, perfectionism, irrational beliefs, low self-esteem, poor study habits, and acquired inability are among these factors (Mehdizadeh et al., 2018). Procrastination has important objective consequences (loss of deadlines, loss of opportunities, loss of income, low production, and wasted time) and emotional consequences (low mood, increased anxiety, fear and anger, and low motivation) in Follows (Van Wick, 2004). Based on what has been said, it can be said that academic procrastination and attitude towards cheating as a kind of immoral behavior in universities need serious consideration, in addition to this important issue that universities deal with, the need to the development of behaviors based on ethics and moral values by its members, especially students. The rise or fall of nations is closely linked to moral values. Because the path to perfection is not possible without moral values, and the creation and emergence of dramatic social and political changes will not be possible without the future creators being transformed and having no moral transformations in the internal reconstruction (Hassani et al., 2014). One of the essential issues that the higher education system needs to pay serious attention to students is ethics in academic activities (Greenwalt et al., 2017). In this regard, ethics knowledge that discusses moral principles and values; Values that observe the behaviors and voluntary traits of individuals and their distinction in terms of good and bad, merit and demerit, goodness and ugliness, and merit and demerit (Faraskhah, 2006; Saki, 2011). Ethics is one of the most basic human needs and is considered one of the most important cultural factors of development (Sobhani & Nakhaei, 2019). Studies have shown that ethics has a significant effect on attitudes toward academic fraud and procrastination (Kaufman, 2008; Patterzek et al., 2015).
The approach of this research is a descriptive correlation. The statistical population includes all undergraduate students of the Bu-Ali Sina University of Hamadan. 386 students were selected using a stratified random sampling method. Three standard questionnaires on ethics, academic procrastination, and attitudes toward fraud were used to collect research data. Data were collected and analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and path analysis in LISREL and SPSS statistical software.
The results showed that the relationship between ethics behavior and academic procrastination and attitude to cheating is negative and significant. As a result, the dimensions of ethics behavior can be considered to reduce academic procrastination and attitude to cheating among students Analysis of research hypotheses showed that there is a negative and significant relationship between self-efficacy and scientific responsibility of ethics behavior components with academic procrastination. Based on the results, it can be stated that self-efficacy in students can create a context in which they consider themselves efficient and effective, Be creative in teaching and research, feel that they can play an effective role in advancing educational goals, In addition, scientific responsibility provides the context for students to honestly share their scientific information with others, believing that they are constantly updating their scientific archives, knowledge, and skills. As a result of these conditions, academic procrastination in them is reduced, so that they have a good speed in performing homework, to do their homework on time. Therefore, the institutionalization of moral principles makes the students to be energetic and active in their educational and educational roles, and to avoid slacking and neglecting their work, and to try more seriously and with more effort in fulfilling their duties. In addition, the results showed that social responsibility, self-efficacy, and scientific responsibility of the components of ethics behavior have a negative and significant relationship with attitude to cheating. Based on the results, it can be stated that social responsibility emphasizes the solution of social problems by the individual based on his study and research, holding himself accountable to students, society and parents has a social commitment to maintaining human dignity. Self-efficacy also refers to satisfaction with one's educational and research performance. Finally, scientific responsibility emphasizes aspects such as compliance with specialized, technical, educational and research standards. As a result of the existence of the mentioned moral values, we can see a negative attitude towards students to cheating, who consider cheating as a kind of lie and abuse, committing it as wrong and violating the rights of others. The overall result of the study showed that ethics has a negative and significant relationship with academic procrastination and attitudes to cheating. Students, as moral actors, have a moral system that results from living in a social world. To explain their moral system, we need to see where they connect to the social world. Students in the context of family, neighbors, friends, education and civic relations, and especially through work, are tied to the social world and find certain morals, and therefore can design a moral system for themselves, within which avoid immoral behaviors. In line with the obtained results, it is suggested to develop sustainable moral characteristics in students, this can be achieved in the light of educational programs. It is also recommended that university professors create a conducive learning environment in their classrooms, actively engage learners, continuously evaluate students' knowledge, skills and attitudes, facilitate the achievement of educational goals, provide feedback to learners, inform students of their abilities, and Provide students with strengths and weaknesses and create opportunities for students to reduce cheating and procrastination.