تجارب زیسته معلمان دوره اول ابتدایی درباره شیوه‌های تدریس خلاق در بستر آموزش مجازی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آموزش ابتدائی، دانشگاه فرهنگیان نسیبه، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه فرهنگیان نسیبه، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی شیوه‌های تدریس خلاق در بستر آموزش مجازی براساس تجارب معلمان دوره اول ابتدایی انجام شد. در این مطالعه، روش پژوهش کیفی با رویکرد پدیدارشناسی مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. ابزار پژوهش مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختارمند بود. اعتبار داده‌ها با استفاده از تکنیک‌های تأییدپذیری از طریق خودبازبینی پژوهش‌گران و اعتمادپذیری با هدایت دقیق جریان جمع‌آوری اطلاعات و هم‌سوسازی پژوهش‌گران تعیین شد.برای تعیین میزان پایایی از آلفای کریپندورف و بر اساس فرمول که در آن عدم توافق مشاهده شده و عدم توافق مورد انتظار استفاده شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل مضمون صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که روش‌های تدریس خلاقانه شامل: ارائه کنفرانس توسط دانش‌آموز، تحقیق، بارش فکری، گردش علمی (استفاده از تورهای مجازی موزه و آثار باستانی) ، روش نمایش، روش حل مسئله، کار دستی؛ ابزارهای آموزشی شامل: ابزارهای چندرسانه‌ای، استفاده از انیمیشن، فیلم،استفاده از وسایل بازی، استفاده از مواد طبیعی؛ تکنیک‌های خلاقانه تدریس شامل: عکاسی توسط دانش‌آموزان، بازی‌های فردی و گروهی، سفرعلمی در خانه، قصه‌گویی و پرده خوانی؛ انگیزه معلمان در استفاده از روش تدریس خلاق شامل: حفظ و تقویت انگیزه یادگیری دانش‌آموزان در آموزش مجازی، ایجاد فضای شاد آموزش در دوران کرونا، تقویت حس خودآموزی در دانش‌آموزان، جذاب کردن کلاس درس، افزایش مشارکت دانش‌آموزان؛ و همچنین مهم‌ترین چالش و مشکلات معلمان در اجرای شیوه‌های تدریس خلاقانه شامل: ضعف نرم‌افزاری، کاهش تعاملات، کمبود امکانات، عدم همکاری اولیاء و ضعف ساختاری بود

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Experiences of primary school teachers about creative teaching methods in the context of virtual education

نویسندگان [English]

  • حسینی کامیاب Hoseini Kamyab 1
  • Batool Sabzeh 2
1 Master student of primary education, Farhangian Nasibeh University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Farhangian Nasibeh University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the most important concerns of virtual education is the effectiveness of teaching-learning processes. Due to the prevalence of virtual education and the use of technological tools in the field of education and learning, growing and creative education has become more important than ever. In particular, virtual education for children in primary school faces major challenges in discussing the effectiveness of education and the quality of students' learning. What is important in educating children in the first grade of elementary school is how to cultivate the power of reasoning, judgment and purity in them, through which children learn how to think right, make the right decisions and solve their problems in the right way (Firoozfar, 1395). Overcoming the challenges and obstacles in this field, as well as increasing teachers' skills in how to use technological and creative tools, can, in addition to improving virtual education; Provide children with access to multisensory or multimedia education (Morris, 2006), various information resources, virtual interactive environment and other technological facilities appropriate to their cognitive level and needs in the context of cyberspace (Shafiei Sarvestani et al., 1399 . Teaching elementary students in the context of cyberspace allows teachers and students to use multimedia tools and software and effective communication mechanisms to implement creative teaching and take advantage of appropriate educational opportunities in e-learning. , 2005). What is key here and should not be neglected; Teachers' experiences, attitudes and skills are needed in this field. Many teachers' concerns about the quality of learning in this way will be addressed if teachers have the appropriate creative, innovative knowledge, skills, and attitudes in e-learning (Smith, 2012). According to the author's review of the research topic, no significant research has been done on the lived experiences of elementary school teachers regarding creative teaching methods, especially in the context of virtual education in the first elementary school; Therefore, the present study seeks to examine the experiences of primary school teachers regarding the use of creative teaching methods and how to use them in the virtual learning context, and finally, based on teachers' experiences, a framework for developing and applying creative teaching methods. Provide the first elementary school for children. In this regard, three basic questions were raised; 1- How did the primary school teachers implement their creative teaching methods in the context of virtual education? 2- What problems have primary school teachers encountered in applying creative teaching methods in cyberspace? 3- What have been the achievements of primary school teachers in using creative teaching methods in virtual education? the present study was conducted qualitatively, phenomenologically and with a descriptive approach. The purpose of phenomenological research is to explicitly explain and identify phenomena as they are perceived by individuals in a particular situation. It is a scientific method that summarizes social issues with a mental approach (Horsell, 1938). Based on the purpose of the present study; To study the lived experience of teachers regarding creative teaching methods in the context of virtual education, a phenomenological approach was selected that was appropriate to the purpose of the research. Participants in this study were all primary school teachers in Pardis city in the academic year 1300-1499, which was selected by purposeful sampling of 12 teachers and interviewed by theoretical saturation criteria. Selection condition, willingness to participate in research; Experience in providing virtual education in the context of virtual social networks (such as Happy Network) and the use of creative teaching methods in virtual education. In order to gather information and conduct interviews, teachers were first asked to participate in the research by forming a group on one of the available social networks and conducting the necessary explanations about the research. Then, with the assurance that the subjects will understand the subject, the interview questions will be presented separately and individually (in person) through video, audio or text file presentation, and the answers provided by the teachers will be in the form of a text in the form of a set. Implemented and assembled. Conducting interviews with 12 teachers reached theoretical saturation. The tool of the present study is a semi-structured interview designed by the researcher based on the objectives of the research. Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis method. The results showed that creative teaching methods include: presenting a conference by the student, research, brainstorming, field trip (using virtual tours of museums and antiquities), demonstration method, problem solving method, handicraft; Educational tools include: multimedia tools, use of animation, movies, use of play equipment, use of natural materials; Creative teaching techniques include: photography by students, individual and group games, home science trips, storytelling and screen reading; Motivation of teachers in using the creative teaching method includes: maintaining and strengthening the motivation of students to learn in virtual education, creating a happy atmosphere of education during the corona, strengthening the sense of self-learning in students, making the classroom attractive, increasing student participation; Also, the most important challenges and problems of teachers in implementing creative teaching methods included: software weakness, reduced interactions, lack of facilities, lack of parental cooperation and structural weakness. First graders began their first formal learning experience while my world, including Iran, was embroiled in a corona pandemic, and inevitably decided to continue, both globally and nationally, to prevent the spread of the virus. The official education of the country was based on virtual and distance education. The main challenge for the advancement of the educational system, both at the macro and micro levels, was to maintain motivation and the quantitative and qualitative level of education compared to face-to-face education. On the one hand, the infrastructural challenges, including high-speed Internet network, software and hardware appropriate and quality, and on the other hand, the ability and competence of educators to use these tools in order to hold quality classrooms, problems And it was important issues that have plagued the country's education system since the initial outbreak of the Corona virus. Because the focus of this research is on the second dimension of these challenges, namely the competence of teachers, and in particular first grade elementary teachers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • lived experience
  • elementary education
  • creative teaching method
  • Virtual Education