نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه فرهنگیان نسیبه، تهران، ایران
2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آموزش ابتدائی، دانشگاه فرهنگیان نسیبه، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the most important concerns of virtual education is the effectiveness of teaching-learning processes. Due to the spread of virtual education and the use of technological tools in the field of education and learning, innovative and creative education has become more important. In particular, virtual education for children in elementary school is facing major challenges in terms of the effectiveness of education and the quality of students' learning. What is important in the education of children in the first grade of elementary school is how to develop the power of reasoning, judgment and discernment in them, through which children learn how to think correctly, make correct decisions and solve their problems in the correct way (Firoozfar, 2015). Solving the challenges and obstacles in this field as well as increasing the skills of teachers in how to use technological and creative tools can, in addition to improving virtual education; Provide children with access to multi-sensory or multimedia education (Morris, 2006), various information sources, virtual interactive environment and other technological facilities according to their cognitive level and needs in the context of virtual space (Shafii Sarostani et al., 2019). ). Therefore, like any other type of education, it is important to pay special attention to the discussion of creativity and teaching methods based on it in the context of virtual education in order to provide quality, creative and innovative education by teachers. Despite the fact that most people distinguish virtual education due to its dependence on digital communication and gradually forget the role of the teacher (Bets and Poole, 2008), but without a doubt, just like face-to-face education, in virtual education as well The teaching methods of teachers as the architects of the learners' cognitive structure direct their mental energy and guide their motivation and educational activities, and the teaching methods based on creativity and problem solving are effective in developing their cognitive organization (Mehrinejad and Sharifi, 2014). From Guilford's (2008) point of view, creative action means learning. He admits that when students deal with cognitive problems, they need to use unusual methods of problem solving, and only then do they attempt to reconstruct the problem (Gilford, 2008). He also states that "children learn the nature of intellectual resources in such a way that they can have control over them". It is possible to help children to increase learning through creativity. This importance can only be achieved through creative teachers in educational processes. Creative teachers are people with divergent thinking, energetic with a supportive, transparent and interactive way, and they believe that in the teaching profession, creative self-improvement precedes the creativity of learners (Aghazadeh, 2018). With the review that the author has done in the field of the subject of the research, there has not been any thoughtful research on the lived experiences of elementary school teachers regarding creative teaching methods, especially in the context of virtual education in the first elementary school; Therefore, the current research seeks to examine the experiences of primary school teachers regarding the use of creative teaching methods and how to use them in the virtual education platform, and finally, based on the teachers' experiences, a framework for the development and application of creative teaching methods. Provide for first grade children.The aim of this study was to investigate the lived experiences of first grade elementary teachers in creative teaching methods in the context of virtual education. Due to the prevalence of virtual education and the use of technological tools in the field of education, growth and creative education has been predicted. In particular, teaching children in primary school faces major challenges in discussing the effectiveness of education and the quality of students. In this study, a qualitative research method with a phenomenological approach was used. The research tool was a semi-structured interview. Data validity was determined using acceptance assessment techniques through researchers 'self-review and reliability by accurately guiding the process of data collection and researchers' alignment. . Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis method. The results showed that creative teaching methods include: presenting a conference by the student, research, brainstorming, field trip (using virtual tours of museums and antiquities), demonstration method, problem solving method, handicraft. Educational tools include: multimedia tools, use of animation, movies, use of play equipment, use of natural materials. Teaching creative techniques including: photography by students, individual and group games, home science trips, storytelling and screen reading; Motivation of teachers in using creative teaching methods includes: maintaining and strengthening the motivation of students in virtual education, creating a happy learning environment in storage, strengthening the sense of self-learning in students, making the lesson attractive, student participation. Also, the most common problems and difficulties in implementing creative teaching methods included: weakness, reduction of software, the most important facilities, lack of cooperation of parents and structural weakness. Creative teaching methods and techniques, although due to the limitations and implementation problems that we mentioned earlier, it is a difficult thing for teachers, but as we mentioned, the implementation of this type of teaching method ultimately facilitates learning and Increasing the quality of teaching-learning processes. For example, the teachers wrote in their statements: "Whenever a student becomes involved in learning and takes responsibility for learning, especially when playing a role, it makes that learning flow in the students' lives and get deep", "the things that I asked my students as homework were such that they would increase their motivation to learn so that they were completely involved in learning and spent time doing homework they did". Undoubtedly, the use of creative teaching, both in face-to-face and virtual education, has an effective role in enriching learning and its continuity over time, but what is very important in this period of the Corona pandemic is to create a positive perspective and attitude in The first classes are related to the formal education system and institutionalizing important elements such as engaging in the learning process, engaging learning experiences, practicing and developing participation and cooperation and teamwork, and connecting educational goals and content with the realities and everyday issues of life.