عنوان مقاله [English]
Due to their special physical condition, the blind are not able to perform some artistic skills, and training them is very complicated due to visual impairment. On the other hand, having such skills to prevent isolation and depression, as well as to fill leisure time, increase self-confidence, increase social relationships and create employment. It seems necessary. Due to the special conditions of blind students in our education, art lessons, especially for this group of people, have been neglected and neglected, which has had various reasons, including misconceptions about the abilities of the blind, and so on. On the other hand, the complexity of art education due to visual limitations has caused those involved in the field of art to pay less attention to this issue, although in recent years there have been sporadic efforts to direct this course and increase the hours of knowledge art. Students are done. However, due to the difficulties of the work and the lack of a suitable practical model for the coaches, it could not achieve its goals. Based on the available backgrounds, it can be seen that students with visual impairment are faced with low levels of self-esteem that should be addressed to strengthen this sense in them. After research and studies, we decided to use methods and works of art to strengthen the self-esteem of students with visual impairments. On the other hand, an important and fundamental question is whether the active methods in teaching artistic skills to visually impaired students can really help the self-esteem of this type of students? To achieve the desired answer and result, the researchers used a different perspective with a new and innovative approach using the method of "study". Due to the necessity of art lessons, especially in adolescence, and the use of manipulation and strengthening the sense of touch for blind students, we decided to seize the opportunity in teaching activities and teach an artistic skill by creating a practical model for teaching Instructors can take an effective and important step towards finding talent and flourishing their artistic talents in order to improve their self-esteem. By teaching the art of knitting to the blind and continuing to acquire sufficient skills, we can hope to create job opportunities and income for this vulnerable group. On the other hand, the use of knitting art due to the practical and continuous use of the concept of right and left, up and down, up and down, and increase the orientation skills of students and improve the spatial visualization of blind students and strengthen the sense of touch. It is effective. Therefore, considering the many advantages of the study method, it was decided to teach manual art (knitting two miles) in a study method on students' self-esteem to the visually impaired, and the main hypothesis of this study is whether art education Manual (knitting) in the form of study is effective in improving the self-esteem of visually impaired students. The method of this research was experimental and quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design. The statistical population of the study included all blind and partially sighted female students in Yazd province in the academic year 1397-98 who were enrolled in special schools for visually impaired students. This population consisted of 69 girls, of which 30 were selected by available sampling method and were divided into experimental and control groups (15 people in each group). The experimental group was trained in knitting under the instruction of the instructor according to the educational package contained in the content and lesson plan, and the control group was trained in the usual classroom manner. The most important data collection tool was Cooper-Smith (1967) Self-Esteem Questionnaire, which both groups completed before and after training. For data analysis, data were collected from descriptive statistics (mean) and after training, and after observing the assumptions, they were analyzed by analysis of covariance (one-way). The results of one-way analysis of covariance showed that between the mean scores of self-esteem of the two groups. Post-test stage, after removing the pre-test effect (adjusted mean), a significant difference is observed (p <0.001) and the adjusted mean of post-test self-esteem scores in the experimental group is higher than the adjusted mean of post-test self-esteem scores in The group is a witness. According to the analysis of the data, the test results showed that the scores of the experimental group in the post-test of self-esteem significantly increased compared to the control group, so it can be claimed that within the limitations of the experimental design, knitting head training It has had an effect on increasing students' self-esteem and this hypothesis is confirmed. On the other hand, because this training was implemented using the study method, as a factor affecting the quality of the relevant training can help the result obtained from the research. Because in the study method, because a team of teachers participate with each other, the planning, implementation and control of education is more accurate, and the shortcomings of the implementation methods are eliminated by the group, and higher quality education is implemented. Therefore, this method itself can be one of the factors in obtaining the result of this research. However, training skills that contribute to the visual impairment of a visually impaired person directly affects his or her quality of life and his or her self-esteem, because a sense of independence in performing activities is one of the most important motivators for the individual. Visually impaired helps boost self-esteem. In a general conclusion, it can be claimed that teaching artistic skills using the study method can help the self-esteem of visually impaired students. According to the obtained results, it is suggested that schools have various art education programs in the curriculum of visually impaired students. It is hoped that this training will be used by public school students as well. This study, like other studies, had limitations in the implementation of the questionnaire, especially since the sample of the study was visually impaired students. Also, this study was performed on a sample of girls and only in the city of Yazd. Therefore, caution should be exercised in generalizing to all students with visual impairments. Subsequent researchers can test this research on a wider community and with other arts.