اهداف، روش ها و محتوای تدریس هنر مبتنی بر مفهوم درون ماندگاری در اندیشه ی دلوز

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته رشته دکتری فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت، دانشکده روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت، دانشکده روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

هدف: تدریس مفهومی است که با عناصر و مفاهیم مهم و راهبردی؛ اهداف، روش ها و محتواهای مناسب محقق می گردد بدون هر یک از این عناصر، تدریس محقق نمی گردد. مهمتر اینکه این عناصر باید پویا و مبتنی بر اندیشه های نو باشند. لذا هدفِ پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی اهداف، روش ها و محتواهای مناسب در تدریس هنر مبتنی بر مفهوم درون ماندگاری دلوز انتخاب شده است.

روش: روش استفاده شده روش بازسازی شده قیاس عملی فرانکنا هست که ریشه در یونان باستان و قیاس نظری و عملی ارسطو دارد و گونه ی قیاس عملی آن در قلمرو حکمت عملی و استخراج عناصر تربیتی کاربرد دارد.

یافته ها: یافته‌ها، بیانگر آن است توجه به استعدادهای خود و تلاش جهت شکوفایی آن با تکیه بر روابط افقی و قیاسی و با استفاده از متون ترجیحا مشابه در دیدگاه دلوز مهم هستند و کنشگری می تواند به عنوان یک هدف تربیتی باشد و جهت تحقق آن از روش قیاس استفاده نمود. دلوز هم از این روش بهره جسته است. در خصوص محتوا می توان گفت ؛ از محتواهای ترجیحا شبیه به هم همچون فیلم های مشابه یا تئاترهایی از یک سنخ استفاده شود. نگاهی به یافته ها، نشان می‌دهد از مفاهیم دلوزکه بیانگر اندیشه های وی هستند می توان جهت عبور از تاکیدِفقط بر زیبایی شناسی در تدریس هنر عبور کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Objectives, Methods And Content Of Teaching Art, Based On The Concept Of Immanence In Deleuze's Thought

نویسندگان [English]

  • bahram moradi 1
  • Alireza Mahmuudnia 2
  • suusan keshavarz 2
  • saied zarghami 2
1 Graduated in philosophy of education, Faculty of Education and psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate professor, Faculty of Education and psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Objective: The aim of the present study is to identify the appropriate goals, methods and content in art teaching based on the concept of Deluzian immanence. Deleuze is one of the great contemporary philosophers who gave new life to philosophy by presenting new ideas in philosophy. To do this, he created new concepts, one of which is immanence. Since one - these concepts express his thoughts and two - his thoughts can be the solution to many of our problems, and the third is that it is not possible to address all aspects of his thoughts and concepts in one article, so try to analyze one of The most important concepts of his ontological concepts have been called introversion in order to take a new step in this direction by extracting the appropriate goals, methods and contents of art education.





Method: The method used is Frankena's method of practical analogy. Frankena's practical analogy is rooted in ancient Greece and Aristotle's theoretical and practical analogy. Aristotle considers the application of theoretical analogy in the realm of theoretical wisdom and in areas such as metaphysics and physics, and considers the application of practical analogy in practical wisdom and in areas such as ethics, politics, and education. According to Frankena; There is a lot of practical analogy in the realm of applied knowledge, such as the realm of applied education.

Findings: Findings indicate that an actor can be a goal and use the analogy method to achieve it, and Deleuze has used this method and preferably similar content such as similar movies or theaters. Used one type.

Results: The results show that Deleuze's concepts, which express his ideas, can be used not only in aesthetic but used to teaching art and social sience. Many researchers in Iran and abroad have done research on Deleuze, some of whom have studied his ideas, and others who have tried to exploit and apply his ideas in various aspects of life. In the present study, the second approach has been selected. Here are some related research.

In their study, Porhosaini and et al (2014) extracted John Dewey's views on art and aesthetics and then extracted its implications for teaching and learning.

Abdollahyar and et al (2019) have proposed creative teaching based on Deleuze's rheumatic principles. Due to the increasing changes and developments in technology and educational systems, and consequently the vital need for creative thinking and thinking, he has proposed creative teaching and believes that; Since the requirements for creative teaching are freedom, experience, risk-taking, flexibility and lack of prejudice, relying on Deleuze's rhizomatic principles such as connection, discrepancy, multiplicity, unbalanced rupture, mapping can be a model in which to Emphasize cooperation, dialogue, participation, innovation and active learning, and consequently stimulate critical thinking, opportunities for change in teaching methods, change in teachers' perspectives.



moradi (2006) in his research aimed at extracting the implications of postmodernism - as Deleuze's field of thought - in teaching, emphasized active and individual learning and decentralization.

Cronje (2018) in a study entitled "Rheumatic Implications for Integrated Learning" deals with the web learning environment (3) that each person produces knowledge. In this sense; Learners automatically generate knowledge. In this environment, learners learn what they need to learn automatically. Google Translate provides the opportunity to learn a foreign language for a trip. Google Maps also informs us about the geography of our trip. We can get what we want to learn quickly. His paper includes the use of rhizome theory to develop multifaceted learning. 2- Provides an integrated framework for designing rhizomatic learning experiences. His definition of learning includes the process of relating to various information ideas and resources, learning the path of critical thinking, continuing learning, and learning decision making.

Salehi's doctoral dissertation entitled "Random Teaching; Deleuze, Creative Discourse and Art" considers creativity to be an event from Deleuze's point of view, which occurs in the open air and through the current situation, and may be destructive or beneficial. In parts of his dissertation, he referred to various theories of the discourse of creativity, including modernism and postmodernism, to different approaches to creativity, including; It also mentions social psychological approaches, psychometric approaches, cognitive and news approaches, individual and social approaches, and integrated approaches and erroneous approaches. In part of his dissertation, he uses the box of creativity, art, and event, and finally points out that the creative person is the one who creates and makes possible the impossible, and poses and solves questions. . "We can teach the value of breaking without being pessimistic about creativity," he said. We can teach the pleasure of chaos and the ways to deal with it and to love the complexities of Salehi (2008).

As can be seen, there has been a lot of research on teaching, but none of them has addressed the goals, methods, and content of art education based on the concept of endurance, which in the present study raises three clear and explicit questions. will be done.

Deleuze (1994: 45) states: "Every time there is a transcendence, a vertical existence, and a kind of empire in heaven or on earth, we are confronted with religion, and every time it is within us, we are confronted with philosophy." The statement points to the importance of the concept of endurance.



Calling Spinoza a prince and a philosopher Christ, Deleuze considers him the only philosopher who has not always excelled. Deleuze relied on introspection instead of error in philosophy to delusion in philosophy; Especially the illusion of contemplation, the illusion of contemplation and the illusion of conversation. Relying on the concept of introspection, he speaks of the renewal of the image of thought and claims that anyone who cannot renew the image of thought is not a philosopher. In this regard, he goes beyond representation and proposes representation and creativity in thought. Deleuze goes on to mention the passage of error following the passage of thought threats, including; Stupidity, forgetfulness, aphasia, delusions, and insanity are also on the agenda, and he believes that the fear of these things prevents him from thinking about his basic task of creating. He enlists Kant's reference to illusions when Kant said that thought is threatened by the inevitable illusions that arise from within itself, rather than by the threat of error.

Foucault (1972) is one of Deleuze's favorite thinkers, and Deleuze wrote a book about him, Foucault (1972). According to him, the most obvious and general form of transcendence is truth, and our fundamental error is that we think that there are meanings and truths that are waiting to be interpreted, revealed, or revealed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • deleuze
  • immanence
  • philosophy
  • teaching art
  • rhizomatic