نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانش آموخته رشته دکتری فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت، دانشکده روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.
2 دانشیار فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت، دانشکده روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Philosophy was out of breath in the twentieth century. Deleuze, like some philosophers, wanted to save philosophy. To do this, he created new concepts that he could use to present his ideas. One of the most important of these concepts is immanence. Different Deleuze scholars choose one of the approaches in the face of Deleuze is to use their ideas to develop different actions that some have applied his ideas in education. In the present study, the application of his ideas in The practice of teaching, especially the teaching of art.
Teaching is a concept with important and strategic elements and concepts; Appropriate goals, methods and contents are achieved Without any of these elements, teaching will not be achieved because teaching is a good environment for learning And this learning, regardless of the goals as a sign to be achieved, methods as a ride to ride towards the goal And content is like food without which goals cannot be achieved And most importantly, these elements must be dynamic and based on new ideas. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate goals, methods and contents in teaching art based on the concept of Deleuze immanence.
Cronje (2018) in a study entitled "Rhizomatic implications for blended learning" addresses the web learning environment (3) where each person is a producer of knowledge. In this sense; Learners automatically generate knowledge. In this environment, what learners need to learn about content production is learned automatically. Google Translate provides a language learning platform for a traveler. Google Map informs us about the geography of our trip in another way. His definition of learning includes the process of relating to various ideas and sources of information, learning the path of critical thinking, continuous learning, and decision-making learning. Dr. Salehi's (2008) dissertation entitled "Random Teaching; Deleuze, Creative Discourse and Art" considers creativity from Deleuze's point of view as an event that occurs in the open air and beyond the existing situation and may be destructive or beneficial.
The method used is the reconstructed method of Franken's practical analogy, which has its roots in ancient Greece and Aristotle's theoretical and practical analogy, and its kind of practical analogy is used in the realm of practical wisdom and the extraction of educational elements. In practical analogy, one of the introductory propositions is a descriptive proposition that causes prescriptive conclusions to be obtained that are logically correct, while in theoretical analogy, the presuppositions are descriptive and the result is descriptive. There are many practical analogies in the field of applied knowledge such as the field of applied education. For example, it is possible to prescribe any guidelines or references regarding the selection of goals and contents of education, application of principles, methods that should be considered by teachers, using such analogies (Frankena, 1966)
The findings indicate that one pays attention to one's talents and strives to flourish them by relying on horizontal and deductive relations, And using texts that are preferably similar are important in Deleuze's view And activism can be an educational goal And used the analogy method to achieve it. Deleuze has also used this method. Regarding the content, we can say; Use preferably similar content, such as similar movies or theaters of the same genre. A look at the findings shows Deleuze's concepts that express his thoughts can be traced back to the emphasis only on aesthetics in teaching art.
One of Deleuze's basic concepts is the introspection derived from his ontological ideas, and in his book Thousands of Plateaus (2005) and What is Philosophy (1994), Difference and Repetition (1994), and Statements in Philosophy (1968). It can be seen that it has spinoza roots and can be used for educational purposes. According to Colebrook (2002), Deleuze and Guattari's encounter with the level of immanence is most evident in the two books: What is Philosophy? Which is theorized about the level of immanence and a thousand plateaus. To clarify the concept of immanence, Deleuze contrasted it with the concept of transcendence, relying on philosophers such as Spinoza, Hume, Kant, and Descartes. Deleuze's immenence is closely related to his other concepts. For example, the rhizome as an epistemological concept, when studied at the level and has nothing to do with the first and the lower, can be studied as a concept of introspection under the ontological dimension of Deleuze's philosophical thought, and this is true of some of his other concepts as well. Below is an example of a gesture extraction process; Prescription or suggestion process
immanence and its opposition to transcendence is one of the most basic concepts of Deleuze's philosophical ideas.
In ideas based on Deleuze's philosophical ideas, its immanence and opposition to transcendence must be taken into account.
immanence and its opposition to transcendence as one of the very basic concepts of Deleuze's philosophical thought should be considered as a major component in formulating the goals, methods and contents of teaching art.
Immanence and its opposition to transcendence is prescribed as one of the elements of Deleuze's philosophical ideas to be considered in formulating the goals, methods and contents of teaching art.
Considering that acting education is one of the important principles in sustainability, it is suggested that acting education be considered as the goal of art education. Considering that the intertwined and horizontal deductive method is one of the important principles in Deleuze's immanence, so it is suggested that the horizontal intertwined deductive method be considered as a method of teaching art. Given that the selection of content that is introverted and far from transcendental and almost homogeneous and similar is one of the important principles of Deleuze's survival, so it is suggested that preferably similar and enjoyable content to be considered for teaching art.