رهیافتی پدیدارشناسانه بر تجارب زیسته معلمان ابتدایی از آموزش مجازی دانش آموزان در شرایط کرونا (COVID-19)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزش عالی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه کردستان، آموزگار ابتدایی آموزش و پرورش ناحیه یک سنندج، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه ریزی درسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، آموزگار ابتدایی، دبستان شهدای صنایع هوایی،

چکیده

هدف: آموزش مجازی به عنوان یکی از کاربردهای مهم فناوری‌های اطلاعات و ارتباطات در جهان مطرح و فعالیت‌های گسترده‌ای در این راستا آغاز گردیده است. با توجه به تغییرات سریعی که در محیط پیرامون در حال شکل‌گیری است، اجرای نظام‌های مجازی به‌منظور ارائه خدمات و فناوری جدید در زمینه‌ی تدریس و یادگیری به‌صورت یک نیاز اساسی مطرح‌شده است. لذا با توجه به شرایط حساس فعلی و قرار گرفتن در شرایط غیرقابل‌پیش‌بینی بیماری، بهره‌گیری از آموزش مجازی امری مهم و ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. عمده‌ترین مسائل در برخورد با این بیماری، ناشناخته بودن و گستردگی آن است که همه نهاد آموزش از پیش‌دبستانی تا دانشگاه را درگیر کرده است. بر این اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر رهیافتی پدیدارشناسانه بر تجارب زیسته معلمان ابتدایی از آموزش مجازی دانش‌آموزان در شرایط کرونا بود.

روش: روش پژوهش حاضر کیفی بوده و بر اساس رویکرد پدیدارشناسانه انجام‌گرفته است. میدان تحقیق و جامعه موردمطالعه معلمان ابتدایی مدارس شهر سنندج بودند؛ که 20 نفر به‌صورت هدفمند برای شرکت در مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته مشارکت داشتند. داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار MAXQDA 12 سه مرحله کدگذاری باز، کدگذاری محوری و کدگذاری انتخابی موردبررسی و تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرارگرفته‌اند. اعتبار داده‌ها با استفاده از روش تأیید پذیری توسط مشارکت‌کنندگان صورت پذیرفت.

یافته‌ها: تجارب مشارکت‌کنندگان در چهار الگو ترسیم گردید. 1- کاستی ها و ضعف ساختاری آموزش مجازی،. 2- پیامدهای کاربردی در فرایند یاددهی- یادگیری، 3- آسیب های فرهنگی- اجتماعی آموزش مجازی 4- ایده های کیفیت بخشی به آموزش مجازی.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A phenomenological approach to the lived experiences of elementary teachers in virtual education Students in Corona (COVID-19)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdollah rahimi 1
  • Haydeh Ahmadi 2
  • Edris Rostami 3
1 Ph.D student in Higher Education Administration, Faculty of Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 M.A, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Primary Education Teacher, District 1, Sanandaj, Iran.
3 PhD Student in Curriculum Planning, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Elementary Teacher, Shohada Sanaye Havaei, Elementary School, District Five, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Objective: Accordingly, the aim of the present study was a phenomenological approach to the lived experiences of elementary teachers of students' virtual education in coronary conditions.

The outbreak of the new corona virus began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and spread rapidly across the country and beyond. Since then, the disease has spread rapidly throughout the world and is recognized as a global epidemic (Lui et al, 2020). It is a new type of highly contagious disease caused by acute coronavirus syndrome (Osmani, 2021; Li et al., 2020;). Following the outbreak of the coronavirus, the closure of schools and the need to continue education in the school year, teachers were forced to provide virtual education on social networks, especially the program. In e-learning, the learner performs educational activities and homework through the web. In other words, e-learning is an attempt to complete the training program in traditional education systems in which the potential and extensive facilities of the Internet are used. ‌ شد. The goal of this program is to provide equal information for all learners, regardless of their geographical, social and economic location (Feng, Cheng, Wang & Xu, 2020). In fact, with the spread of the coronavirus and the need to respect social distance, the need for virtual education became more and more felt and most countries in a short time were forced to move to virtual education and prepare the ground for promoting the quality of this type of education ( Almarzooq, Lopes, & Kochar, 2020). The psychological impact of widespread quarantine and the stay of all people in the community, including students, and the use of e-learning is significant and can be lasting (Brown, McCormack, Reeves & Brook, 2020). In fact, this epidemic has led to widespread disruption of face-to-face education (Ahmed, Allaf & Elghazaly, 2020). Given that a return to the pre-epidemic approach to providing education and learning at the present time is unlikely (Goh & Sandars, 2020), these conditions can be used as an opportunity to improve the quality of education virtually. . Thus, following the outbreak of COVID-19, many parts of the world have turned entirely to e-learning. Issues related to student readiness for this teaching method are a major concern in countries where students are not accustomed to virtual classrooms (Al-Nofaie, 2020).

In a time when online, offline, e-content, virtual school, online classroom, digital space, web-based education and cyber-TV education have become a hot topic and a concern for everyone, families are trying to seize this opportunity. Provide the necessary equipment to improve the educational level of their students (Sintema, 2020). Therefore, in today's context, based on the experience gained from education in previous years, it must be accepted that e-learning is a necessity, because this method removes many of the usual limitations in physical education and provides an ideal environment for transmitting educational information. (Salehi and Rafiei, 2018). Based on the importance of this issue and from the very beginning of coronary heart disease in our country, the trustees and those involved in education also started to continue education through the creation of educational systems and the implementation of a virtual school and e-learning plan for students.

The goal of e-learning is to provide equal and free access, to create a uniform educational environment for all classes at any point and to optimize the methods of presenting the curriculum in order to learn more deeply and seriously (Mufti, Mohammadzadeh, and Rezaei, 2018). A virtual learning platform provides a high quality and sustainable educational infrastructure that enhances collaboration and collaboration between different departments, including learners and teachers. Also, researchers believe that despite the benefits of e-learning, this method in general can not be a substitute for conventional teaching methods, but can be used as a complementary method in most topics (Ghanbri et al, 2019). "E-learning in cyberspace, which is usually supported by media such as video conferencing and chat, can support e-learners in the development of learning communities. This whiteboard offers video and audio playback and file sharing. (Cornelius, 2014; Rudd & Rudd, 2014) Nonverbal communication signals combined with simultaneous conference sessions make students feel more connected and interact with their peers and mentors (Rudd & Rudd, 2014). Overcoming students' feelings of isolation in asynchronous environments helps (Tunceren, Kaur, Mullins & Slimp, 2015). Asynchronous tools may seem to be less relevant than concurrent tools, but some studies claim that asynchronous tools can improve students' cognitive skills (Ogbonna, Ibezim & Obi, 2019). Communication between students and teachers usually extends beyond the time and place of the classroom د. This type of out-of-class communication can affect students' academic, social and emotional development (Hershkovitz, Elhija, & Zedan, 2019).

Methodology: Whereas the researcher intended to examine the lived experiences of elementary school teachers of students' virtual education in coronary conditions; Therefore, the phenomenological strategy was chosen. This strategy is similar to the way Piaget used in his research to find out how children understand the world around them. Phenomenology can be used to research almost any aspect of natural or social reality that individuals have acquired a perception of (Gal, Borg, & Gal, translated by Nasr et al., 2016). Sampling method: Sampling was done in a purposeful and standard manner. That is, people were invited to participate who met the important and predetermined criteria desired by the researcher. Among the school teachers in Sanandaj, a total of 30 people were invited to participate, 10 of whom were male and 20 female. The principle of theoretical saturation was used to complete the sampling. Tools: A semi-structured interview charter was used to collect data. Interviews were conducted in person, online and by telephone. It was ensured that the names of the interviewees or other personal information were transcribed on the texts and the text of their statements was not included and the principle of confidentiality and confidentiality of information was observed in all stages of the research. The duration of the interviews ranged from 20 to 30 minutes.

Results: Participants' experiences were plotted in four models. 1- Challenges of using cyberspace. 2- Advantages of teaching in cyberspace, 3- Disadvantages of teaching in cyberspace 4- Suggested solutions for better teaching in cyberspace.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lived experiences
  • Virtual Training
  • Students
  • Electronic Learning
  • Corona(COVID-19)