نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، دانشکدۀ روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
2 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزشی، گروه مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، دانشکدۀ روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
3 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزشی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکدۀ روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.
4 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت آموزشی، گروه مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، دانشکدۀ روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
In today's world, the emergence of transformational technologies has caused education to have a special place. As a result, the teaching-learning process and the education process, in general, are the main factors in developing countries and lead to their success in national and international competitions. On the other hand, developed countries believe that one of the most critical factors for their success is paying particular attention to the development and empowerment of human capital, especially instructional supervisors at schools. Thus, they have made it a priority in their strategic and development plans. However, the review of previous research shows that it is necessary to first identify their competencies and use this model in needs assessment, training design, development, and empowerment to design human resource empowerment mechanisms. All human resource management processes should be used optimally. In this regard, it can be acknowledged that decent human resources will lead to the creation of a decent school, and a decent school will lead to the creation of proper education and training, and proper education will lead to the creation of a decent society. Studies show that identifying the competencies of human capital and designing a development and empowerment system based on it has an essential role in improving the quality and increasing the effectiveness of educational systems, especially schools. Furthermore, when the system undergoes fundamental changes and transformations, other programs such as; Educational supervision and guidance more than any other factor can effectively improve the quality of the teaching-learning process and adaptability. So, this study aimed to identify and validate the model of instructional supervisor competencies. The research approach was applied to the objective and the data collected using the mixed-method approach. The research method in the qualitative part is descriptive phenomenology. In the second part, the qualitative section uses a quantitative approach and descriptive-analytical research method, using non-probability sampling method and snowball, 19 instructional supervisors and teachers with more than five years of experience were selected as critical participants. 248 people were selected as the research sample using the cluster sampling method in the quantitative section. The data collection tool in the qualitative section was a semi-structured interview and in the quantitative section was a researcher-made questionnaire based on the results of the qualitative section. To analyze the findings obtained from the qualitative part, the 7-step analysis method was used and, for the analysis of quantitative data using AMOS software, the confirmatory factor analysis method was used.
Furthermore, to verify the qualitative findings, the methods of long-term engagement, member review, and external audit were used to ensure the agreement method's reliability between the two coders. In the quantitative part, to evaluate the validity of face and structural validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was examined. The research results in the qualitative section led to the identification of 35 primary and seven organizing themes. Finally (based on the competency model) in 5 general categories of broad themes, including; knowledge (specialized and organizational knowledge), skills (skills related to the teaching-learning process and psychological support), characteristics (psychological characteristics), ability (perceptual-cognitive ability), and attitudes (attitudes related to optimism and self-development). The results of the quantitative analysis also showed that the model has a suitable and desirable fit. In summary, as noted earlier in the Research Background section, although at the national level the identification of competencies of some critical stakeholders in the education system such as teachers, senior and middle school principals, and school principals has been neglected, critical competencies of instructional supervisors are rarely investigated. Most of the existing documents in this field (mainly published by the Ministry of Education and Farhangian University) do not provide a comprehensive model, model, and framework for the competencies of supervisors and focus more on their duties, functions, plans, general and specific conditions of employment. Using the results of quantitative and qualitative analysis of the present study and the need to pay attention to the new method of monitoring and leadership, it is possible to design and implement research to identify the factors affecting the success and effectiveness of instructional supervisors. According to the results of the present study and field observations by the research team, the following practical suggestions can be provided. Since the design and validation of the professional competency model, instructional supervisors are the main findings of the present study. Therefore, the designed model can be used in processes such as; Recruit, employing, developing, empowering, and motivating instructional supervisors. On the other hand, the study's findings can be used as a suitable scientific basis for selecting qualified educational supervisors and giving them a certificate of competency. To design good training programs (in-service) for supervisors, it is necessary to identify their learning needs. In this regard, the findings show that one of the original and reliable sources for needs assessment is the professional competency model, so in this regard, the designed model can be a practical guide. Considering that the research skills are the most critical skill of educational supervisors, designing and conducting them using scientific methodology such as; Action and study research are necessary. However, the present study results show that creative thinking is considered one of the supervisors' most critical professional competencies. Therefore, it is suggested that senior education management can convert this ability into an organizational and individual value by encouraging behaviors such as presenting suggestions and criticisms without fear, exchanging ideas, and creating two-way communication channels in the organization. Education policymakers must transform the existing organizational structure from a barrier to an enabling one by designing appropriate mechanisms. This change gives necessary authority to supervisors for performing their professional duties.