نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 گروه آموزش زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه فرهنگیان، تهران، ایران
2 استادیار دانشگاه فرهنگیان، گروه آموزش زبان و ادبیات فارسی، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Humans and the usage extent of their thinking power and creativity are of the most important factors in the development of a country; Due to the requirement of today's society for innovative and creative people, the necessity to change teaching methods and use active and creative teaching approaches is felt more than ever. Today, learners must increasingly learn the critical and creative thinking skills to make the right decisions and solve complex societal problems to enter the age of knowledge and to be capable facing the significant developments of the 21st century. The present study is dedicated to compare the impact of two creative teaching approaches, namely flipped classroom and Lesson Study on development of the creativity associated to students of Farhangian University. This Research, by selecting one of the genres of literature, namely Prose poetry that is in the title of the creative writing course of educational sciences of this university, compares the effect of these two creative methods on the creativity of learners in this genre. Generally, different kinds of genres regarding to their own attributes possess variety elements which make them distinguishable, but which is common with in all genres is the creativity in their productions. However, the creativity is not only an element, but also is a thing that has four elements according to Torrance viewpoint. The elements are fluidity, authenticity, flexibility, and expansion in which they must be taken into consideration for creativity assessment. Among the courses assigned to the syllabus associated to the students of educational science at Farhanigian University, there is a course named “creative writing”. The mentioned course as its title indicates is based on creativity. Therefore, it must be targeted in regards to its objectives. The presentation of this course must be in such a way that it consequently results the significant creativity enhancement of learners, but the atmosphere of education in our country and the traditional and non-creative approaches being utilized is far from determined goals for many years. Regarding to aforementioned points, the current research with the emphasis on creativity enhancement of learners intends to conduct learners performing one of the creativity genres relevant to creative writing course, namely prose poetry, with new educational approaches. This genre is very close to poetry, and it is one of the creative literary types that technically has its own music, sometimes following a kind of middle rhyme, without following the old system of pronouns. In addition to, it even has a special melody. The statistical population of this study is relevant to Farhangian university's students and teachers; also, the statistical sample includes two groups of 35 people who were identified as students of educational sciences of this university.At the outset, this research provides a model that measures different dimensions of creativity in different components of the literary genre. This model includes components such as language, sensation, literary array, rhythm and music, description, imaginative illustration, linguistic De-familiariation, semantic De-familiariation, literary De-familiariation, and poetic thought. Each of these components was defined according to the four elements of creativity. Then, according to these definitions, Prose Poetry was taught with two different approaches in two statistical sample classes. Afterwards, each of the two groups have been measured by causal and comparative methods before and after the presentation of the independent variable. At the end, the final results of both groups are compared. The outcome of this study shows that the methods of lesson study had a greater impact on the creativity of students in comparison with flipped classroom, and the average scores obtained in the lesson study group were significantly higher than the group of Flip classroom. The comparison of the level relevant to creativity in this research has been done according to all the components of the Prose Poetry and all four elements of creativity from Torrance's point of view (fluidity, originality, flexibility, and expansion). It is clear that the Torrance Creativity Test criteria designed for general creativity is not simply applicable to literary creativity. Therefore, by studying the characteristics relevant to each of the criteria in creativity element, each of them was studied in relation to the elements and components of writing a Prose Poetry. The results also show that the lesson study group, in the language component and the flipped classroom in the literary array, achieved the highest score and the effect of both approaches on literary deconstruction and poetic thought has been very low. Totally, the findings of the curent research conclude that although both studied approaches of this paper are new, constructive, and active, the gained results of each are not the same; this point emphasizes that applying different appraoches on different educational courses do not lead the same results. Although the flipped classroom appraoch has close relationship with constructive philosophy and is completely based on pervasiveness and criticism, it yields the weakest result in comparison with lesson study approach in learning Prose Poetry genre. In addition to, the gained results prove that lesson study apparoch dominates against flipped classroom in miscellaenous contexts either in writing capability skills in the most elements of Prose Poetry or in the increment of creativity elements. Everything caused the lesson study approach dominates against flipped classroom approach can be related to different factors. First of all, the lesson study is a team working process and each viewpoint of group members can play vital roles in result improvement. Another important issue is that lesson study approach has more capabilities against flipped classroom approach in utilizing the new educational approaches. In addition to, the lesson study team can engage variety approaches to reach better results and the final results rather depend to tact used in lesson study team. This issue caused that the lesson study is performed by miscellaneous creativity-based approaches and utilizing the different approaches can be taken as the reason of improvement in capability and creativity writing associated to learners. The diversity of methods in education on different dimensions can be known as it can be interesting for learners and it leads improvement in all dimensions of creativities.