عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent years, social networking sites and software have emerged as one of the most influential phenomena among new technologies. The use of these networks also affects the education and teaching and learning process of learners. In the field of education, the focus of research has been on the role of social networks in the process of teaching and learning and formal and non-formal learning. Learners interact informally on social media based on their inner and outer motivations, and this allows for a variety of academic opportunities, accreditation of creative activities, helping with school affairs, and supporting teachers to transfer life to schools. Creates. Activities in social networks through knowledge sharing lead to dynamic interaction of learners. Also, the use of social networks outside of school enables learners to describe and examine different dimensions of their identities and their Dominates learning skills in the 21st century. In addition, the use of social media has enhanced teachers' informal learning, had a positive effect on classroom actions, improved learner motivation, and boosted self-esteem and self-efficacy. It enables learners to make the most of their knowledge, thereby contributing to the ongoing professional development of teachers. According to research, it is a fact that learners spend a lot of time on social networks. Today, learners' learning is not simply influenced by formal learning or formal curricula such as workshops, symposia, and courses, and whether or not they benefit from non-formal learning through social media. Findings showed that the use of non-formal learning under the auspices of social networks is associated with opportunities, challenges and requirements; Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to design a model for non-formal learning based on social networks.
The method of the present research is of development-applied type and according to the approaches of qualitative method, it is of synthetic research type. Articles were searched using the keywords informal learning, informal online learning, formal learning, and a combination of formal and informal learning in relation to social networks. To search for Persian articles, the databases of Jihad Daneshgahi, the comprehensive database of humanities, the database of national journals and the database of Noor specialized journals have been used, and to search for English articles, the databases of Google Scholar, Proquist, Science Direct and Elsevier have been used. All searches in this study were conducted among articles published between 2005 and 2019. Inclusion criteria were considered as all quantitative and qualitative articles and articles published in English and Persian and exclusion criteria were considered as articles that overlap with other articles. 130 articles were found in the initial search. In order to evaluate the quality of the obtained studies, the titles and abstracts of the articles were studied separately by the members of the research group. According to the input criteria, at first 85 articles were selected and after carefully reviewing the content of 24 articles, they were entered due to criteria such as being related to informal learning in social networks and lack of overlap with other articles. In order to extract the data, a data extraction form was used which was designed based on the research purpose. This form included sections including authors, year of publication, purpose of study, type of research, sample size, and method of data collection and results. After completing this form, the results obtained from the review of analytical articles were summarized and finally reported.
The analysis showed the characteristics, consequences, outcomes and implications of the combination of formal and non-formal learning as well as the characteristics of the model. Findings showed that non-formal learning in social networks is unstructured learning that allows information to be received voluntarily and learners in social networks can acquire knowledge based on their learning speed and style and thus facilitate their personalized learning. In addition, with the ability to respond quickly and in a timely manner to learners, they can contribute to collaborative learning. Findings also showed that the use of non-formal learning leads to cooperation and knowledge sharing, gaining valuable teaching experiences, has a positive impact on the learning of teachers 'professions and is generally a source for the development of teachers' professions. In addition, non-formal learning in social networks is a lifelong learning guide for learners and supports the building of knowledge, empowerment of learners, and their social and personalized learning. In addition, the findings showed that the relationship between formal learning and non-formal learning leads to strong, flexible and accessible educational attractions that support learners' self-regulated learning. The findings also showed that the relationship between formal and non-formal learning should use a collaborative learning model and formal learning and personal characteristics and characteristics of the work environment, personal views, behavior and environmental factors affect informal online learning. In addition, the love and interest in learning, job commitment and perception of the need for learning lead to informal learning in relation to non-formal learning.
The elements of this pattern have special properties; For example, the findings showed that the learner is a self-leader, innovator, personal manager of knowledge for his / her informal learning in social networks and participates in individual and group tasks. In addition, regarding the characteristics of the learning environment, the findings showed that the informal learning environment is flexible, process-oriented and personalized, so that the learner can develop creativity and critical thinking at any time and any place. Informal learning activities in social networks, individual and group, are not based on real and predetermined interactions and provide the ground for self-sufficiency and motivation of learners. Communication in social networks is interest-oriented, personalized and based on solving problems and motivations. Is. The findings also showed that evaluation in social networks is continuous, qualitative, facilitator of learning and based on self-evaluation and peer assessment methods. In general, in this model, the learner is the communication loop of other elements. Due to the characteristics of the model based on non-formal learning in social networks, it is recommended to curriculum planners to use the coordinates of these elements to design a curriculum based on social networks.