نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران
2 کارشناسی ارشد برنامه درسی،گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to analyze teacher’s experiences of history teachers from the factors and obstacles of teaching in the history curriculum of the second year of high school in 1395-96. History lesson according to the characteristics and importance of educating the young generation, It should be considered in many cases By improving the teaching conditions and also reviewing the content of the textbook, a way will be created to make students interested in this lesson. Due to this important point, the main purpose of this study is to critique and analyze the history curriculum from the perspective of history teachers And the main research question is: 1- What do teachers expect from a history curriculum? 2- What is the reason for students' indifference and inattention to the history lesson and establishing a relationship with it?
this research is a qualitative research and a descriptive phenomenology which uses targeted and skilled person-based sampling, and was done through a semi-structured interview with 13 teachers in the 7th district of karaj city. interviews were recorded and then transcribed and using the Brown and Clark thematic method and were analyzed in the form of content analysis and coded using AtlasTi. findings from interviews with teachers in relation to teachers experiences of barriers to teaching history,especially in terms of content and method of teaching history lesson, included in six main themes “the educational role of history”, ”historiography”, “repulsion of history”, “history teaching”, “the place of history”, and “audience” and sixteen sub-themes were identified.
Overall, the findings showed that the teachers believed learning history as a regular and continuous process requires adopting appropriate methods with its own teaching,
And that is the transition from general and general ideas to specific and specific information in the process of education and emphasis on unity between all components, while avoiding excessive partisanship, regardless of the more general pre-organizers. In this case, it will accelerate learning and provide an accurate and scientific insight to the person. However, it seems that in the history lesson, less attention has been paid to its principles and teaching methods. In Iran, students are faced with a huge amount of names, years, regions and raw information that have no thematic connection with each other. Preserving this wealth of information, while tedious and tedious, in many cases makes the learner elusive. On the other hand, the dryness and aimlessness of the material is another reason for the reluctance of students to learn history. History teaching generally faces many problems and shortcomings, History teaching is traditional and book-based, based on teacher lectures and often one-sided. In this type of education, students have no role in teaching and teaching is based on memorization, listening and speaking.so, it can be said that the lack of direct connection between history textbooks and students 'personal lives in teaching history is another reason for students' indifference and lack of interest in studying history.
it should be acknowledged that the use of various active teaching methods in history lessons in Iranian schools, despite the obstacles and problems such as high student density, lack of necessary facilities, generally wrong view of history lessons, large volume of materials and short teaching hours The lesson of history and ... seems difficult. But with all the problems and obstacles, history teachers can use their art to make students aware of history lessons and its role in the future of the country with a combination of different teaching methods, and while creating a cheerful and inquisitive spirit of students, their minds to create Prepare the connection between the historical space of the past and the space of the present. When history teachers are familiar with the three pillars of teaching, namely the content of the lessons, the teaching method and the students' knowledge, and strive to increase their knowledge, In this case, they can better play a role in shaping the lesson, creating interest in students and providing the opportunity for creativity and talent. In discussing the content of the book, the teachers pointed to two main topics of historiography and the content of the book, and considered each of them important in making students interested in studying history. The secretaries believed that the way history was written was very important, emphasizing the three pillars of trustworthiness, balance of events, and simplification. In discussing fiduciary duty, many of them demanded that the historical material be presented in exactly the same way as what happened in the book. Do not underestimate people or give them the role of myth. According to the teachers, every human being makes mistakes in her life and a human being cannot be considered innocent. They believed that this would seem very unrealistic to today's student because they have access to a variety of sources to check the accuracy of the book. Therefore, the best thing to do is to be trustworthy while writing, and without one-sided judgment, to state everything that has happened and leave the judgment to the student. The teachers also believed that the content of the history book was not attractive enough to attract the student to the text, and this was due to the great fragmentation of the material. Finally, the teachers emphasized that in writing textbooks, it is very important to pay attention to the learner's learning ability, because in the absence of such a comprehensive ability, she only memorizes the material, According to the teachers' interviews, this happened in connection with the history lesson and it is more important for the students to get a passing grade than anything else. This indicates that in the content of the history textbook, no attention has been paid to the learner's ability to learn. Overall the finding showed that teachers pay special attention to the impact of the content and method of teaching history lesson, and it was considered a factor for students to escape from history. They want to change in the way content is written, as well as the proper training of teachers to use new teaching methods. The last point is that the history curriculum of the secondary school is very important both in terms of belonging to a specific age group that has a high level of abstract thinking and in terms of its content, which influences the attitude and political orientation of students. In addition, due to the vast amount of information and its diversity in the current era, there is a need for content that prepares students to live in real life and should be a teaching method that helps students in the correct processing of information and correct judgment.