نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی برنامهریزی درسی،واحدمرند،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،مرند،ایران
2 گروه برنامهریزی درسی،واحدمرند،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،مرند،ایران
3 استادیارگروه علوم تربیتی،دانشگاه فرهنگیان،تهران،ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to investigate the process of formation of analytical literacy in high school students.The present study uses the data theorizing method of the foundation to provide a model for teaching analytical literacy in Iran. This research is in the interpretive group in terms of the dominant paradigms of research. Semi-structured interview technique and purposive sampling method were used to collect the required data. The interviewees of this research are experts and professors of educational sciences, curriculum planning.The research data were analyzed by open coding method which is specific to the contextual approach and conceptual, main and macro categories were extracted and finally the pattern of analytical literacy training including causal, structural, intervening factors as well as strategies for analytical literacy training and implementation consequences. The correct system of analytical literacy training is provided. According to the research results, the main category includes education General topics are education (comprehension, teaching tools and techniques), study management (book budgeting, study time management) which can be used to design, develop and implement an analytical literacy training program in Iran.
In the field of causal factors (planning and cultural management of the family, reaching the desired level of literacy, using the Internet of Things, the emergence of distance education, enjoying life opportunities, avoiding the consequences of unipolar education) in the field of structural factors (subculture_country_city, The country's educational system, family culture), were identified in the field of intervening factors (complexity of analytical components, inherited characteristics such as intelligence, household economic conditions).
Persons with the analytical literacy, have three abilities in reading and writing: reading ability and answering to smart argumentation and recognition ability (analytical reading), ability for making convincing reason wisely (analytical writing), and recognition ability for analyzing reasons or except that. Also, schools and educational centers assign the responsibility of analytical reading and writing education to periods as critical thinking skills or argumentation that is teach by specific group. These periods provide opportunities for students to participate in analyzing and making reason and argumentation and then exercise actively. In here, work results are encouraging: psychological studies as research made by Quen, Shaw and Felton showed that students who pass critical thinking periods can evaluate rhetorical content as written and verbal matters and also they can develop some facilities with regard to collecting and assessment cases. But system given special periods has limitations. In this cases, they can access to analytical skills via working at periods that have no certain duty for offering educational skills. Evidently this self-training is harmful and destructive. Not only this but also, analytical literacy is process that necessarily take place with time passed. It means that students with necessary instructions must practice and develop their analytical skills in reading and writing continually. This action can and must be expand more than critical thinking class in environments with various planning offered by schools and educational centers. It is possible that teachers obligate your students to learn analytical reading and writing to strengthen analytical literacy according to current models. Teachers must persuade your students to do analytical thinking as reading and writing duty appropriately. We grow up with given information. We need to adopt the learned critical positions and to avoid from accepting cases and matters passively. New students communicate with more information sources that are more than their age and conditions. Just as they study sources and references, the need of questioning occur at them. They need to understand what is writer's intention (perez-pena, 1997). Start point is important to help to students for analytical intelligence in order to realizing writer's positions and ideas and written matters. Also educational environment is important to strengthen analytical literacy such as teacher and classroom (Ravitch, 1974). Analytical approach is considerable for important attitude and for the time of using analytical manner in learning. In this approach, not only students play with picklock role, but also they examine/check case by critic's window (Street, 2005). The found results show that that factors of mental skills, training teachers system, course content, hard and software, free thinking, percipience and intuition, analyzing in field of educational environment and system are been confirmed as important elements and necessary action must be done for creating and making appropriate conditions. Increasing growth of science and technology has effected on different dimensions of human life. With considering to forming analytical literacy, it must be paid attention to the growth and prosperity in mental needs (mental skills). One student must have appropriate mental and spiritual position for access success in this area. Recently more teachers and psychologists have found that mental factors are effective on learning results and sometimes this case is determinative factor. But however, experiences show that mental elements are not paid attention for teachers and students and their parents and all teachers and students and their parents must get trained special skills to be fulfilled mental needs of students. With regarding general thinking, Critical thinking is higher level than reasoning/argumentation.
Education of new generation is the first most important step for reaching to goal/aim and its main element is the education of their teachers. Teachers as being guide role for students, must specialize up-to-date knowledge in addition to their expertise in teaching discipline. Officials have duty to provide educational principles with technical surveillance; because main aim of acquisition is being the queen of mind in useful scientific findings nor superficial and old scientific materials. Creative teacher has more mental and brain precipitation and he feels less disability and deficiency. He is ready to discourse with students patiently and encourage them to creating new and fresh thought. self-centeredness, questioning activity, critical thinking, nonresistance against changing, increasing focus, having desire for learning, understanding and analyzing, creating conflict in students' thinking process in field of developing process are been confirmed as important elements and must take the necessary measures to create the appropriate conditions.
Educational institutions are one of the infrastructure and important institutions in society because of having the important role in education and training next generation. Because most important form of human interaction is the communication that is founded based on question and answer. Therefore questionnaire as a skill is required at all levels of community interaction. Students' acquaintance with questionnaire and creating motivation for planning question, can be intensifier and helpful for the mechanism of making question and develop this ability in students. In other words, increasing confrontation of students with the astonished and challenging materials and their involvement with topics and their feeling need to find solution lead to strengthen the abilities to question and to try for again cognitive balance of learners.