نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The classroom, as the smallest formal unit in the educational system, is changing due to social and educational changes. Classroom management is a key variable and an important indicator in educational systems for a teacher's success. Achieving educational goals requires attention to change and the application of efficient and effective management style in classroom management. Classroom management as the first level of educational management plays a key role in shaping the structure of education and the teaching process. Classroom management is a rotational process in which the teacher first designs and plans, organizes, commands, coordinates and controls, guides and leads, executes, evaluates during the performance and final evaluation in setting goals with the participation of students in the management process. Activities performed for effective learning and emotional health and conflict management of students in the classroom. Classroom management is one of the most common and important issues and problems in the classroom and in fact the main enemy in becoming a successful teacher that many teachers face before and even while serving. Lack of proper classroom management disrupts learning and loses time for students' educational activities and causes more stress to the teacher. The best style in the classroom is a style that can make the atmosphere of the classroom desirable and continuous, and ultimately provide an opportunity for more growth and learning. Achieving educational goals requires paying attention to changing and applying an efficient and effective management style in the classroom. Therefore, transformational classroom management can be effective as a new approach in this field. Therefore, creating and maintaining an effective classroom management program is crucial in creating safe learning environments that ultimately lead to academic achievement and success for all students. Classroom management is the cornerstone of a quality education because of its effects on the classroom environment and the mental and physical well-being of teachers and students. With proper classroom management, teachers can use new teaching methods (student-centered and participatory teaching methods) to improve teaching efficiency, enhance learning and solve students' behavioral problems, and effectively control the classroom. Therefore, identifying the components of transformational classroom management is of particular importance. For this purpose, the present study aims to construct and validate the Transformation Classroom Management Questionnaire in schools to answer the following 3 questions: What are the components of the Transformation Classroom Management Questionnaire? Does the questionnaire have the necessary reliability? And does the questionnaire have the necessary validity? Developing a valid tool for measuring transformational classroom management can not only help students learn and effective interpersonal communication between teacher and student, but also help education system policymakers to respond effectively to effective classroom management for teachers and students with proper planning. The research method was the survey (factor analysis). The statistical population of the study was all primary school teachers in Isfahan in 1399. Based on the Cochran sample size determination formula, 240 people were selected by random sampling based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire that was prepared based on books and articles related to classroom management. This questionnaire consists of 26 items according to the 5-point Likert scale (from very low = 1, low = 2, medium = 3, high = 4 and very high = 5). The validity of the questionnaire (in terms of construct validity) and its reliability (in terms of Cronbach's alpha and combined reliability) were determined after confirmatory factor analysis. Statistical analysis of data using Bartlett sample size adequacy (KMO) tests; exploratory factor analysis, structural equations (second-order factor analysis) and Cronbach's alpha were performed using Smart-PLS3 software. Validity and reliability criteria have been used to fit the scale of measuring the components of transformational class management. Content validity, convergent validity and differential validity have been used to assess validity and Cronbach's alpha and combined reliability have been used to assess the reliability of the scale. Exploratory factor analysis has been used to identify the underlying components of the Transformation Class Management Scale to determine the relationship of each item to the relevant components. Initially, Bartlett sphericity test and KMO index were used to validate the data correlation matrix and sampling adequacy. The cut-off point of the KMO index for "sampling adequacy" is 0.7.
For content validity, the final version of the questionnaire was provided to ten educational science professionals and experienced teachers to evaluate the content of the items. They were asked to rate each scale in terms of its relationship to the main structure on a four-point scale: 1- unrelated, 2- somewhat relevant, 3- quite relevant, 4- very relevant. Next, the CVI value for each item was calculated by dividing the number of people who scored 3 or 4 by their total number. Finally, items ranging from 0.8 to 1 were selected to measure the evolutionary class management scale. Also, the total average for 26 items was 0.93, which indicated that the content validity of the Transformation Class Management Scale was acceptable.
In the present study, convergent validity and differential validity were used to evaluate the validity of the Transformation Class Management Scale. Convergent validity was calculated using the mean variance (AVE) criterion and differential validity was calculated using the Fornell-Larker criterion. Cronbach's alpha and combined reliability were also used to evaluate the reliabilityThe results showed that the five components as dimensions of transformative classroom management are: "Participatory learning"; "Applying motivational strategies"; "Promoting the Psychology of Success"; "Facilitating style" and "Class dynamics". Convergent validity evaluation showed that the mean variance extracted for the components of Participatory learning (0.52), Application of motivational strategies (0.61), Promotion of success psychology (0.51), Facilitator style (0.66) and Class dynamics (0.75) was higher than 0.50 And has been approved. Also, the results related to reliability indicate that the evolutionary management scale in terms of Cronbach's alpha and combined reliability was higher than 0.70. In general, according to the results of the present study, this questionnaire had appropriate reliability and validity and was used as a reliable and valid tool in the education system in in-service training courses for teachers and the curriculum of teacher training centers.