نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 1 کارشناسی ارشد فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت مرکز خوی، دانشگاه پیام نور مرکز خوی، ایران.
2 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزشی واحد ارومیه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ارومیه، ایران.
3 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی واحد ارومیه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ارومیه، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to analyze the opportunities and challenges of e-learning in the corona: an approach to the development of e-learning in post-corona. The research method in terms of purpose, application-development and research approach is qualitatively phenomenological and has been done using exploratory strategy. The research population included all primary school teachers in Mahabad city in the academic year 1400/1399, in which 31 people were purposefully selected by observing the rule of theoretical data saturation. The data collection tool was a semi-structured interview. And after obtaining the consent of the teachers, the interviews were recorded and recorded anonymously. The criterion for entering the samples was at least a bachelor's degree and teaching experience over 5 years. Based on the model of qualitative interviews and observing its criteria, in a period of approximately 30 to 50 minutes, it was collected in person, by telephone and virtually in the context of social networks. At the beginning of the interview, the purpose of the research was generally mentioned and it was emphasized that the interviews will be used only for research purposes and the identities of individuals will not be specified in any way in research reports and published articles. Six questions were considered as the main questions and due to its semi-structured nature, other questions were asked as follow-up questions in order to clarify the meaning of the answers provided. Data analysis was performed based on thematic analysis and interpretive approach. In order to validate the collected information, the technique of feedback to the interviewees, researcher review, alignment with research sources and written documents were used. The findings of the content analysis showed that 262 basic themes, 37organizing themes and 4 comprehensive themes were identified. In this regard, the existing problems and threats of e-learning including 18 organizing themes, including:1- Decreasing mental health 2- Expressing and promoting values Immorality 3- Incidence of social harms 4- Increase in physical injuries 5- Decrease in the quality of education 6- Occurrence of family disputes 7-Increase in students' unproductive behavior 8- Students' academic and educational decline 9- Teachers' burnout 10-Lack of educational justice 11- Weakness Objective and practical evaluation 12- Inefficient technical support of the network 13- Inadequacy of home environment for education 14- Lack of strategic plan for virtual education 15- Family economic problems 16-Restriction of human interactions 17-Lack of knowledge and technological acceptance 18-Inadequacy Virtual education content andTraining opportunities include:
1. No limitation of time and place in reading and teaching educational content
2. The possibility of developing effective evaluation of virtual education
3. Increase parental participation in education
4. Communicating faster and easier stakeholders with each other,
Training outcomes include:
1. Development of students' skills and learning experience
2. Increase teachers' teaching skills and creativity
3. Environmental effectiveness
4. Identify the valuable role of school in education
5. Increase educational productivity; And strategies for the development of virtual education, including 10 organizing themes, including: 1- Removing restrictions and developing happy educational software 2- Predicting the requirements and needs of virtual education 3- Continuous improvement of education quality 4- Developing academic enthusiasm and well-being 5- Creating culture Proper use of technology 6- Development of professional and doctrinal ethics of teachers 7- Ethical strategy for the development of virtual education 8- Planning and policy-making with emphasis on emergencies 9- Designing and compiling appropriate content and curriculum 10- Serious review of human resources, Financial and support. According to the results of the research, it can be said that the corona pandemic on the one hand has increased the skills and educational experience of all stakeholders and on the other hand has caused physical, psychological, academic failure, burnout and .... Overall, it can be said that e-learning in Iran, because it was not seriously pursued before the Corona crisis and its infrastructure was not available, has faced major challenges in design and implementation, which reduces its success. . To make the best use of e-learning facilities, the culture of using this method should be promoted and hardware and software infrastructure should be provided. Capable manpower and production of valuable and standard electronic content are other infrastructural factors of this type of training. On the other hand, the corona crisis can be an opportunity to identify weaknesses, deficiencies and shortcomings in infrastructure in this area and show the imbalance in the distribution of the required infrastructure in the Internet and television networks, especially in remote and deprived areas. Identify these shortcomings and try to eliminate them. And this has emerged as growth and excellence in this field and the positive aspect of the situation, and it is the starting point for the continuation and improvement of the quality of e-learning in the future. Given the opportunities and threats of cyberspace in education, recognizing the disadvantages and challenges of e-learning in the field of education and training of students and how it works should not lead to retreat and take a defensive stance against these new and technological tools; Therefore, in the face of cultural attacks and one-sided information monitoring of virtual networks, the cultural community must be equipped with knowledge, skills and the use of this technology. Of course, not all social responsibility for dealing with cultural attacks and possible threats from students rests with teachers, and those in charge must protect the harms and immoralities of cyberspace as well as real space by regulating and effectively monitoring society, and instead of clearing the issue, Seek to solve the problem by recognizing and exploiting opportunities. According to the findings in this field, it seems that if the infrastructure of virtual education is provided, the correct culture of using technology and other necessary conditions together, virtual education can be modern and appropriate methods and sometimes an alternative to traditional education or Be a basic complement to it. Also, due to the problems expressed in the field of e-learning, the supervisory role of parents in the family environment becomes more colorful and it is necessary to form orientation classes to increase the level of awareness and cooperation of families so that the school's efforts in e-learning Be combined and lead to positive and satisfactory results. In the end, it is suggested that the strategies and strategies identified in the present study be carefully considered by educational officials and with the cooperation and coordination of all educational stakeholders including parents, students, teachers, principals and assistants (schools and offices) education needs and requirements. Satisfy the virtual and develop virtual education so that in the future it can be considered as an effective complement to traditional (face-to-face) education and cause growth, development of capabilities and training of more students.