عنوان مقاله [English]
Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics and requirements of the elements of the secondary social education curriculum based on the Tyler model
Method: The research approach was qualitative and using phenomenological method. The criterion for selecting participants in this method was influenced by the design and purpose of the research. Since the purpose of this study was to explore and discover the main elements of the social education curriculum, the statistical population of the study was experts in the field of social education and curriculum planning that was selected through snowball sampling. One of the two conditions was required to select participants: Scientific specialization: People who have sufficient knowledge in the field of social education. And practical experience: People with sufficient experience in the field of curriculum planning. A total of 15 people were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data, Data collection continued until theoretical saturation was achieved, and finally the number of participants to 15 people. The data from interviews were analyzed through Theme analysis method, the validity of the analyzes was ensured by using the consistency of the findings and the feedback method of the participants and non-participating experts.
Result: Findings show that characteristics of social education curriculum consists of categories such as: Purpose (cognitive, emotional and psychomotor), Content (selection and organization), Purpose (cognitive, emotional and psychomotor), content (selection and organization), teaching - learning Methods and evaluation are formed. The most important sub-components identified in relation to the target element are: A: The principles of goal setting include balanced attention to the three levels of cognition, attitude and behavior, Development and identification of basic social values, Proportion of goals to the level of developmental needs of the period, Emphasis on more evolved goals, Convergence of goals. B: Cognitive goals including the development of social identity, the development of indigenous and Islamic identity, the development of cultural and social values, deepen understanding of the needs of the students of the course, paying attention to strengthening thinking at the highest level, teaching the recognition of social harms. C: Emotional goals include strengthening attention to the rights of oneself and others, creating interest in the realization of competencies, creating and strengthening attitudes towards the analysis of social harms, creating interest and motivation in the concepts of religion and spirituality and self-knowledge, creating interest in desirable values such as Identity, freedom, justice, non-racial discrimination, peace, friendship .... D: Skill goals include strengthening the skills for lifelong learning (critical thinking, problem solving skills, abstract thinking ...) Skill and attitude necessary to play an effective role in local and national community, creating social analytics skill. In determining the goals and destinations, attention should be paid to the dimension of comprehensiveness and refrain from focusing solely on cognitive goals and rotated with a balanced and coordinated attention to the three dimensions of knowledge, insight and skill. In relation to the content element the results showed the first thing to be expected from any content. In addition to proper appearance, the content fits in well with the goals The characteristics of this element are: A: Principles of content selection including content matching with goals, content fit with the needs of learners and their level of interest and level of understanding, variety in content presentation forms, increasing the role of learners in determining content, emphasis on teaching aids Instead of focusing solely on textbooks, Paying attention to people's behavior as content, B: Principles of organizing and presenting content, which includes paying attention to the principle of continuity and emphasizing the spiral pattern, emphasizing the balance between predetermined content and Enriching content, vertical and horizontal arrangement of high social content, integrated content. According to the purpose of social education, which is to prepare people for social life by using appropriate methods to transfer and cultivate the required knowledge, skills and competencies, care should be taken in using teaching-learning methods appropriate to the goals. And used methods so that learners can analyze and accept social issues with a creative and dynamic mind and become responsible and law-abiding. The most important sub-components identified in relation to the training method are: A: Principles of selection of teaching-learning methods, which include emphasis on active and student-centered teaching methods, compatibility of teaching and learning methods with goals and content, providing a suitable platform in education to share experience, High social status, high importance of indirect education for social education. B: Types of teaching-learning approaches and methods, including the use of role-playing and storytelling, exploration, identifying joint projects with problem-solving methods, emphasizing dynamic and active methods to strengthen thinking skills, class discussion and questioning, collaboration and collaboration The most important sub-components identified in relation to the element of assessment and evaluation are: A: Principles of evaluation methods including attention and importance to diagnostic evaluation, attention to capabilities and differences of learners, attention to process and continuous evaluation, diverse and The combination of quantitative and qualitative evaluation, the appropriateness of evaluation with objectives, content and methods. B: Assessment methods include: using self-assessment questionnaire, multidisciplinary assessment by teachers, school authorities and parents, skill and operational assessments, use of qualitative tools (observation, checklist, interview) self-assessment by students and having a workbook evaluating educators from each other, increasing the share of learners in evaluation. The element of assessment and evaluation, like other elements of the social education curriculum, should be designed in accordance with the teacher's logic and with the aim of acquiring competencies and skills in three dimensions: cognition, attitude and skill. The findings also showed that the characteristics of the elements of the social education curriculum have an active role in the model of the social education curriculum and if these factors are not provided, the implementation of the social education curriculum will face serious risks. And Identifying the characteristics of the elements of the social education curriculum can be a framework and guidelines for determining the path and strategy in the field of goal setting, content production, teaching methods and evaluation of learning activities in the secondary education system. Based on that, curriculum designers should take appropriate measures to develop the characteristics of the elements of the social education curriculum and improve the quality of education.