عنوان مقاله [English]
The current literature on flipped classrooms offers limited insights into the motivations, perceptions, and challenges of educators, especially in higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the motivations of teachers to adopt the flipped classroom method and the challenges and problems that educators face when teaching in the form of information in a public university. In this study, semi-structured interviews were used to collect information. Thirteen professors who had previously taught using the flipped classroom method were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis method. Peer assistance was used to increase the reliability and validity of the analysis. The findings of this study showed several challenges related to the use of flipped teaching method in Iranian higher education: 1) managerial and structural weakness of the higher education system, 2) weak content required in the flipped classroom, 3) individual barriers in relation to knowledge and attitude And information of students and professors, 4) Weakness of technology. These findings could potentially be used as a guide for educators who want to use the flipped classroom method to improve their students' learning outcomes.
In the third millennium, with the introduction of information and communication technologies in the field of life, the proper use of educational systems from these technologies in teaching and learning is one of the major professional challenges in most societies (Parsa Moin, 2020). It is popular where activities that were traditionally done in the classroom (for example, presenting material) become homework and activities that were normally called homework become lesson activities. Akçayır et all., 2018) In the reverse classroom, the instructor helps students to take responsibility for the learning process instead of just providing information, and in fact promotes inclusive learning (Lai & Hwang, 2016). . Because class time is not used to impart knowledge to students through lectures, the instructor is able to engage with students through other learning activities such as discussion, problem solving suggested by students, helpful activities, and guidance. Today, the concept of reverse class is implemented in many different disciplines (mathematics, social sciences, humanities, etc.) and in schools and universities around the world (Hao, 2016). As a popular new educational model, the reverse class has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Research on reverse class, especially in higher education, has increased dramatically. In general, the literature on this topic focuses mainly on the benefits and challenges of reverse classrooms (Ho & et all, 2018).
Researchers have discussed the benefits of inverted classrooms to justify their effectiveness. Another important benefit of such a classroom is that it can enhance active learning. In the reverse classroom, students are more involved in meaningful learning activities, self-centered learning, in-depth information processing, and achieving more learning (Lai & Hwang, 2016). The problem is used, which leads to deep learning (Maciejewski, 2016), citing self-centered learning theory, claiming that active presence in the reverse classroom may meet students' need for independence, solidarity and competence, and thus Improve students' motivation and learning. Flexibility is another benefit of the reverse classroom that is often discussed by researchers. Using step-by-step self-help videos enables students to quickly, at any time, place, confront themselves with pause, rewind, review, or video lectures (Karabulut-Ilgu, 2018). Regarding student participation in an inverted classroom, Qualifi concluded that the emotional dimensions of learning should not be underestimated. Dimensions such as peer commitment, recognition, a sense of security, and the coaching relationship are particularly highlighted as contributors to student learning (Steen-Utheim & Foldnes, 2018). Another study showed that reverse teaching method was more effective in students' learning than traditional (explanatory) teaching method (Mobaser Maleki & Kian, 2018).
Although the reverse classroom has many benefits for improving learning, it also has some drawbacks. Some studies do not support the effectiveness of the reverse class compared to the traditional class, or even show that the reverse class discussion undermines group learning (McClelland, 2013; Velegol, 2015;). The biggest challenge of using the classroom approach is the heavy workload created for faculty and students. Turning a traditional course into a reverse course creates a significant workload and workload for professors (Howitt and Pegrum, 2015). As noted (Wanner & Palmer, 2015), the actual time used to prepare a reverse class course is approximately six times longer than the preparation time of a traditional course. To effectively implement the reverse classroom approach, the instructor has to design the curriculum, including objectives, content, instructions, and reassessment. Teachers should prepare pre-class video lectures and in-class activities. Even their PowerPoint slides have been redesigned to make them better at online personal learning. In-class activities also require more investment from the instructor to design, monitor, guide and provide feedback. Students should also make more efforts for learner-centered. Students must complete significant amounts of preparation through class before entering class, including watching pre-class video lectures, reviewing other instructional materials, completing online tests, and completing extracurricular activities. In the traditional classroom, students need to discuss and engage with peers and give lectures to solve their academic problems. Therefore, facing a large amount of information along with the feeling of drowning in a lot of work will cause anxiety and frustration for students. They may not be interested in learning online, give up and resist classroom activities, and are therefore dissatisfied with the reverse class approach (Karabulut ‐ Ilgu, 2018). Another important challenge of using the class is The reverse lesson is the lack of theoretical and practical framework for the design and implementation of this model (Karabulut ‐ Ilgu, 2018), which creates a major obstacle and prevents educators from using this type.
A large number of experimental studies have focused on the effectiveness of flipped classrooms. A significant body of research has generally demonstrated the benefits of this educational approach in terms of improving student learning, including understanding, participation, learning approach, motivation, general skills, satisfaction, and academic achievement (Al-Zahrani, 2015; Zainuddin & Attaran, 2016; Hung, 2015). Researchers have discussed the benefits of flipped classrooms to justify their effectiveness. One of the most important benefits of such classrooms is that it can promote active learning. In the flipped classroom, students are more involved in meaningful learning activities, self-directed learning, deep information processing, and achieving more learning (Bishop & Verleger, 2013; Hwang & Lai, 2016; Davies, 2013). Moreover, class time is used more for social interaction, peer support, group discussion, and problem solving, which lead to deep learning (Hao 2016; Gilboy et al., 2015; Maciejewski, 2016). Abeysekera and Dawson (2015), referring to self-directed learning theory, claimed that active participation in flipped classrooms may fulfil students’ need for autonomy, solidarity, and competence, thereby improving students’ motivation and learning.