عنوان مقاله [English]
The acquisition of knowledge is the starting point of human development and the move of societies towards sustainable development. That is why in today's societies with lower education rates, they face more problems and their progress is slower. Access to education and continuing education is one of the challenges facing many girls in Iran, especially in rural areas. One of the prominent issues in some rural areas of the country is the lack of education or dropout of rural girls. It's a challenging and complicated subject. Because one is deprived of education and the subsequent development of life. Addressing disadvantaged areas to improve the general conditions of girls and women is a top priority for all communities. At the national level, the transition from elementary to middle school is 90% for boys and 80% for girls. Cultural barriers also prevent girls from continuing their education after elementary school. Women in rural areas also face challenges. In urban areas, the literacy rate of women is about 82 percent, while in rural areas it is about 62 percent. Other challenges include lack of broad participation, lack of access to information, knowledge and resources, domestic violence, and low levels of participation in development programs. One of the criteria for growth and development is literacy and equitable distribution of equal educational opportunities and opportunities among different segments of society in order to achieve educational justice. Given the importance of educating women and girls, identifying the factors that influence education in this area may be incomplete for future generations. Investing in girls' education is not only a moral necessity, but a very important one in the development of the country.
The present study was a qualitative research in which the conceptual model of the factors influencing the desertion of rural girl’s qualitative method based on Grounded Theory was used. Participants in the study were middle and high school dropout girls in the villages of Clatterzan and Mouchesh. The reason for choosing them as the research community was that because of their dropout experience, they all had a more tangible and closer relationship with the factors influencing their dropout. They had girls. So, based on their experiences and perspectives, we can have a more realistic understanding of these factors. For this purpose, criterion and purposeful sampling method were used to evaluate the opinions of the sample members. The criterion for selection was mainly the girls' dropout experience and then the purposeful selection of those who volunteered to participate in the study. The sample size was 19 according to the theoretical saturation of the data, and the process of selecting participants continued until theoretical saturation. The research tool consisted of semi-structured interviews in order to gain insight into the opinions of the study participants. The interview was asked a broad general question such as "What was the reason for leaving school" and then exploratory questions such as "Please explain more" were asked to encourage participants and gain more in-depth information. Interviews ranged from 20 to 60 minutes. Data were analyzed by triple coding method. Finally, the findings were shared with some of the participants in order to assess the final validity, and to assure the reliability of this process, a faculty reviewer with experience of qualitative work was used.
The findings of the study indicate 7 factors affecting the education of rural girls, including Economic and livelihood factors, educational environment factors, teacher-student interactions, defective family structure, cultural and value backgrounds, academic impairments, and negative attitudes toward literacy function that in the form of causal, intervention and contextual factors, strategies and outcomes are presented as the final model. First, there are economic and livelihood challenges. Factors that can be addressed by entering into adulthood and employment or marrying girls and renouncing public or university education. Challenges such as financial poverty, livelihoods, low income, lack of education, family need, and seasonality of family income are some of the factors that have been effective in dropping out of rural girls. The second category is the cultural and value attitudes of the parents that have been influenced by the causal factors of the dropout phenomenon along with the causal factors. Components such as poor parental supervision, paying attention to the preference of being a housewife, marrying over education, not allowing girls to continue their education in nearby villages, early puberty, the taboo of male teachers, fear of moral hazards Being mixed with boys and girls, the girl's perception of women is one of the components mentioned by the study subjects. The third category is that the educational environment, teacher-pupil interactions, and the defective family structure as interfering factors have also influenced the phenomenon of rural girls leaving school alongside causal factors. Issues such as a lack of school or separate learning environments, lack of transportation services, traffic hazards, distance between school and home, inappropriate behavior of teachers and classmates in the event of dropout, teacher displacement, change or displacement. School environment, unemployed peers, lack of interest in continuing education, male and sometimes single teachers, distance to school and home, maternal illness, parental oversight, parental illiteracy, death or absence of a parent, lack of male children. In Family, Parental Age, Family Population Frequency of Influential Components in Rural Girls' Education Are. Another result of this study is the category of academic injuries. In fact, this category is the result of the interaction of causal, interventionist, and contextual categories. These interactions have led girls to strategies such as repeated absences, poor schooling, a lack of interest in continuing education, and blaming parents and the school system for inactivity against learning or poor schooling. Therefore, the interaction of the previous passages has led to a strategy for girls to be passively educated.
As a result, the weakness of these factors, which has led to the dropout of girls, suggests the improvement of the inferential factors from the findings of this study, which is presented as a model. Therefore, in order to prevent girls from dropping out of the social capital of society, in addition to providing a model.