نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دکتری روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان با نیازهای خاص، یزد، ایران
2 دانشیار روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان با نیازهای خاص، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران
3 استادیار روانشناسی ، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، یزد، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Purpose: The education of teachers is important with the aim of increase quality of teaching and raising the level of education and the learning process of students. Theory of successful intelligence is one of the most comprehensive and effective theories in the field of intelligence, for understand the nature of intelligence. This theory consists of three sections. Many students, despite to have suitable intelligence, they have low academic achievement in schools. If there is no problem in the family environment, this can be due to teachers' teaching methods, assessments and attitudes. According to the theory of successful intelligence, teachers' attitudes and teaching methods can be improved. In teaching based on theory of successful intelligence, the teacher pursues a number of basic goals. Education is based on individual patterns and students' strengths and compensating for their weaknesses. Therefore, considering the importance of teachers 'views on students' cognitive abilities and its relationship with educational strategies, the aim of this study was to investigate, the effect of educational program based on the theory of successful intelligence on structure of teaching, increasing the sense of efficiency and implicit intelligence theories in teachers of boys and girls in primary school.
Method: The method used in this study was a quasi-experimental method in which a pre-test-post-test design with a control group. The statistical population consisted of teachers of public girls 'and boys' primary schools in Yazd city in the academic year 2016-2017.Using three-stage random cluster sampling method, 60 teachers of girls' school and 60 boys' school in Yazd were selected as the sample. The questionnaire was used “Nature Intelligence Items (NII)” that includes 22 questions that examine 11 questions of entity theories intelligence theories and 11 questions of incremental intelligence theories. “Teaching Sternberg Intelligence Questionnaire (TSI-Q)” that consists of 20 questions and " Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (TSES)" that the scale consists of 23 items. After initial evaluation, 40 teachers of girls' school and 44 teachers of boys' school with entity intelligence theory were randomly assigned to the experimental and control group. In this way, the training program was presented in the experimental group and the control group received no training. In connection with the intervention program, for 3 months in 26 sessions in the experimental group, the theory of successful intelligence was taught and the educational booklet prepared by the researchers in this field was given to the teachers. In the training sessions, an attempt was made to fully explain the components of successful intelligence and the training program based on it in the form of PowerPoint presentation. In connection with the educational content, the text of the program was translated based on the theory of successful intelligence for classroom, which was developed by Sternberg, and Grigorenko, 2003, and then Lawshe's method was used to examine the validity of its content. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and multivariate covariance analysis.
Findings: In this study, 120 samples were examined, the mean age of female participants was 48.10 ± 5/76 and the average age of male participants was 49.72 ± 5/39. A multivariate analysis of covariance was used to investigate the research question. One of these assumptions was Leven's Test for Equality of Variances. The findings show that variance is assumed to be equal. To study the similarity of variance-covariance matrices, Box's Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices was used. The results showed that in the experimental group, the mean scores of male and female teachers in the variables studied in the post-test stage were different from the pre-test scores and the average scores increased and this difference remained in the follow-up stage. Multivariate test results were used to evaluate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variables. The results of this study showed that the educational program has been effective in structure of teaching with an impact factor of 0/78, increasing the sense of efficiency of teachers with an impact factor of 0/67, and changing implicit intelligence theories with an impact factor of 0/71 in girls' school teachers and in structure of teaching with an impact factor of 0/72, increasing the sense of efficiency of teachers with an impact factor of 0/78, and changing entity of intelligence theories with an impact factor of 0/65 in boys' school teachers.
Discussion: Teaching successful intelligence theory has been effective in changing teachers' entity theories intelligence beliefs. It may be rooted in the reasons of successful intelligence theory in relation to students' cognitive abilities, which has led to an increase in teachers' tendency toward incremental theories. One of the positive consequences of successful intelligence theory in teachers is their increased perseverance and effort in the teaching process. The components of successful intelligence theory and teaching styles based on it increase teachers' motivation to use a variety of teaching methods and student-centered methods that which can increase teachers' sense of efficiency. Teacher efficiency depends on recognizing the psychological characteristics of learners and developing students' talents using appropriate teaching methods. Therefore, teaching successful intelligence theory provides an opportunity for the teacher to examine the strengths and weaknesses of his teaching method and to get acquainted with the methods of analytical, creative and practical teaching and their benefits. Given that the teachers' view of cognitive abilities students and sense of efficiency plays an important role in their teaching methods, it seems that an educational program based on successful intelligence theory can play an important role in changing their perspective on intelligence of students, structure of teaching and increasing their sense of efficiency. One of the most important limitations of the present study, is teachers were part of the curriculum, they may have answered the questions by bias. It seems that it is useful and necessary to study the effect of theory of successful intelligence to parents.