نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی ،دانشگاه پیام نور ،تهران ،ایران
2 استاد ، مرکزتحقیقات مدیریت و اقتصاد سلامت ،دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان ،اصفهان ،ایران
3 دانشیارگروه علوم تربیتی ،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان) ،اصفهان ،ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Aim: With the increasing resources and the essential of applying entrepreneurship education programs in universities, the need for principled and legalized entrepreneurship education in universities has become more and more important. The curriculum also promotes more employment. There are only a few examples of running business in some area of colleges, such as economics and business administration. In some fields of higher education, entry into the field of entrepreneurship, especially in the humanities, is very limited. Although entrepreneurial literature originates from the humanities such as economics, psychology, anthropology, sociology and management. Moreover, the growth and development of the humanities compared to other fields such as job opportunities, motivation to progress, creativity, innovation, independence, competitiveness, speed has not been considering significantly. In addition, in the field of most humanities sciences, the book and the content presented to the issues that students need to face in society in practice have received less attention. Therefore, despite the lack of attention to the appropriateness and relevance of the content of humanities disciplines to the realities of students'' lives and careers and the incomplete and weak content of waiting for ideas and creativity will be very difficult for these students. Also, despite of all extended researches has done in the field of entrepreneurship education; the researchers are more focused on student’s attitude survey and the effects of entrepreneurship education than study the content of entrepreneurship education. Therefore, this study intends to identify the types of content of entrepreneurship education for the humanities discipline to present it in the form of a conceptual model to encourage and increase the activity of students and activists of humanities education in the field of entrepreneurship.
Methodology: The present study used the purpose of applied research and in the field of qualitative research, the type of thematic analysis was used inductively. To analyse the content of the interviews, the software of MAQDA18 Software was used. The open, central, and selective coding process is based on the categorization of Atrid Sterling''s (2001) perspective. Inclusive, organizational and basic extracted. The field of study for selecting the interviewees consists of three groups of humanities entrepreneurs whose field of study and entrepreneurship is humanities, entrepreneurship education and university professors of humanities who were recognized as entrepreneurs and non-humanities experts whose field of study was unscientific but Its entrepreneurship has been in the field of humanities, which is currently engaged in entrepreneurship in Isfahan. Using targeted sampling method, 7 people from humanities entrepreneurs were extracted from Isfahan university, Growth and Entrepreneurship Centres of Isfahan University, Isfahan University of Technology and Commercial room of Isfahan. It was only possible to interview three of these people, then through the first three entrepreneurs, the next entrepreneurs were identified and interviewed, and from the identified entrepreneurs, other entrepreneurs in the humanities were again identified and interviewed by snowballs. And this number continued until the theoretical maximum in the interviews conducted and finally the number of samples interviewed was 24 people. To collect information from Semi-structured interview was used. The duration of the interview with people between 45 and 90 minutes was completed and collected within 7 months of the interview.
Findings: The findings of this study consisted of 134 basic themes, 6 organizing themes and 3 general themes and presented as a pattern(model). The conceptual pattern(model) of the content of entrepreneurship education illustrated at three levels of self-awareness, self-efficacy and self-actualization was drawn. Self-awareness was defined as the first level of entrepreneurial education content related to individual, perceptual, and communicative competencies. Self-efficacy was identified as the second level dependent on the presentation of the content of managerial and professional competencies. Self-actualization as the third level dependent on content delivery self -empowerment competencies were determined. 26 common themes include: imagination and imagery, ambition, diversity, creative thinking, self-confidence, perfectionism, independence, motivation, self-confidence, competition, endurance, aesthetic sense, dreaming, familiarity with art, risk-taking, perseverance, challenging mind, Patience, risk-taking, courage, bravery, creativity, ideation, high expressive power, personal motivation , interest and innovation became the theme of organizing individual competencies. The 28 common themes became the 4 sub-themes of Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Entrepreneurial Attitude, Entrepreneurial Skills and Academic Skills, and then these 4 sub-Organizational themes became one of the main organizational themes of perceptual competencies.11 common themes include: Social Relationships, Body Language, Speech and Eloquence, Influence in Communication, Principles of Communication, Interpersonal Communication Skills, Negotiation Skills, Communication Skills, Familiar with different languages, team working Skills. Therefore, the three themes of organizing individual competencies, perceptual competencies and communication competencies, a comprehensive theme of self-awareness was extracted as the first level of content required for entrepreneurship education. The 46 common themes became the two main organizing themes of managerial competencies and professional competencies. 14 Common themes include: Investment, Planning, Time Management, Management Ability, Organizational Behaviour, Entrepreneurship Ability, Entrepreneurship Management, Business Management, Financial Skills, Resource Management, Introduction to Management and Leadership, Financial Management, Mind Management, Quality control of activity became a theme that organizes managerial competencies.32 Common themes include: Economic and Tax Issues, Profitability of Activities, Principles of Advertising, Business Issues, Attracting customers, insurance, financial and accounting issues, familiarity with legal labour market issues, Company registration, knowledge of the labour market, ,Trading topics, revenue generation method, branding, production topics, familiarity with organizational rituals, new marketing methods, launching small activities, business creation topics, business innovation, business models, administrative correspondence, technical skills Specializes in calculating current costs, how to contract, ability to design activities, ability to produce, skills to create and acquire opportunities, Marketing skills, sales skills, Economic justification of activity, ethical principles at work became a theme of organizing professional competencies. The two themes of organizing managerial competencies and professional competencies were extracted from a comprehensive theme of self-efficacy as the second level of entrepreneurship education content.23 Common themes include: internal control, diligence, responsibility, self-management, foresight, success, critical thinking, entrepreneurial thinking, sense of social need, entrepreneurial spirit, tendency to change, problem solving, order, action, thinking big and acting small, Physical health education, self-management, thinking skills, anxiety control skills, self-employment in the community, the ability to use personal talents, awakening a sense of social responsibility, entrepreneurship management, proper use of the senses became a theme that organizes wealth competencies.
Conclusion: According to the conceptual pattern (model)of this study, the content of entrepreneurship education obtained for humanities in higher education in three levels of self-awareness (through acquiring individual, perceptual and communication competencies), self-efficacy (through managerial and professional competencies) and self-actualization (through self-empowerment). The realization of the competencies in different levels through the extracted basic themes can play a significant role in providing a purposeful and comprehensive education appropriate to the dimensions of human existence are achieved.