عنوان مقاله [English]
We live in an unexpected and unprecedented time. The current pandemic has had a huge impact on global education, with more than 1.6 billion students unable to go to school (UNESCO, 2020). To ensure continuity of learning, educational institutions have started using technology to provide online learning programs to students. This new habit not only has a different meaning for learners, but also for parents and teachers. During the epidemic, many problems were created for parents and educators, especially in primary schools, due to the unprecedented conditions and the lack of previous experience and a codified model. The responsibilities of parents or guardians in online courses are different, which is why parents/guardians will face different obstacles trying to engage their students in online learning. Hence, whether it is a traditional learning environment or the current teaching environment. At a distance, it is essential for parents to actively participate in their child's online learning. Therefore, the concept of parents' participation in education, now and in the era of online education and due to the problems caused by the spread of Covid-19, has received increasing attention from educational researchers at the world level more than ever before (Zhang et al., 2020). E-learning tools have played an important role during the pandemic, helping schools and universities to facilitate learners' learning during university and school closures (Sobbed et al., 2020). While adapting to new changes, the readiness of teachers, students and even parents to use them should be measured and supported. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the experiences of parents, teachers, and madrasa administrators in this era in order to provide an experimental model of the process of parents' participation in the virtual education of primary school students. Research data were collected through semi-structured interviews with parents, teachers and principals of primary schools in Tehran in the academic years of 2019 and 2014. The data obtained in the two stages of first-round coding and second-round coding or pattern coding were analyzed based on Miles et al.'s (2020) exploratory coding methods. The findings of the research showed that the three factors of improving students' educational experiences (meeting with school officials to obtain information, cooperating with schools through practical work or financial assistance, using school facilities, providing resources and facilities for extracurricular activities, providing resources and facilities for the curriculum, participating in joint activities with schools), emotional support (helping to reduce anxiety and psychological pressure, participation through creating teaching and learning opportunities, facilitating the teaching and learning process with regard to more knowledge) through participation, emotional support in the implementation of lesson projects through participation, creating opportunities for raising an informed and responsible generation) and interaction and communication with the environment and school (participation of parents as teachers and substitutes, social support in the implementation of lesson projects with institutions different society, assistance in the implementation of education methods according to the recognition of local and natural facilities, the positive effect of cooperation on children, parents' participation, the need of today's education society, attention to the educational role of parents, participation as a social and civil necessity), parents It leads to "participation in the virtual education of students". This participation in two dimensions of educational care (supporting the fulfillment of duties, expecting the final supervision of an adult in school affairs, school support for teacher-parent communication, strengthening life skills and encouraging responsibility for fulfilling personal duties, taking care of children During virtual exams (and supervision and control of children) providing facilities and infrastructure in the form of mobile phones, using different educational media, ensuring the coverage of internet services during distance education, familiarization with scientific literacy and media literacy, Granting permission for activities outside the home during the covid-19 pandemic shows an increase in children's interest in learning at home. The participation of parents and the school community does not occur in the same conditions and is affected by institutional and infrastructure factors (using the capacity of "Parents and Teachers Association" organizations and special committees and local communities to help school affairs, establish rules and regulations and guidelines People's participation at the level of education; more communication between parents and their children's education; more parental support for school officials; increasing the academic progress of students; greater adaptation of school programs to local and indigenous needs; promoting the intellectual and practical development of parents and accordingly that society; speeding up the process of educational reforms at the school level; better and easier implementation of school programs and better evaluation of students), using the abilities of parents in implementing the curriculum (providing the necessary suggestions for developing the curriculum, helping teachers in teaching, Evaluating students together with the teacher, participating in the design of special education, participating in the evaluation of implemented curricula (and supporting their children's learning), providing the necessary suggestions to modify and improve the implemented curricula, monitoring the implementation of school programs, designing and leading extracurricular activities, Monitoring the income and expenses of the school). The participants reported the use of cooperative and assistance methods (parents' emotional support for students' participation, student-teacher interaction, encouraging and modeling parents, strengthening parents in matters related to virtual education, training parents in the field of social interactions between parents and children. During participation activities, improving home and school communication through technology and media use) and methods based on social activities (activating specialized committees and delegating authority and monthly meetings, allocating credits and budgets needed for Necessary trainings, support for parents' participation in cultural publications and cultural building, creating a positive attitude and creating communication networks) led to the understanding of parents' participation as a social and civic necessity and had an effect on improving the teaching and learning processes of students. The results of this research can be used as a framework for schools and educational institutions to use the capacity of parents, especially in virtual education, as a complementary strategy. As a result, parental involvement is related to their child's performance in online learning. Most parents reported more involvement in communicating with the school in their children's online learning compared to collaborating with the community and making decisions with teachers and parents. Parents also provided their perspectives, practices, and experiences regarding the benefits and challenges they received during their children's online learning. The results showed that the majority of parents have become more active in helping their children. They also saw that they had a healthier relationship with their children and that they were more involved in activities. They also admitted that they struggle with time management. But these parents stated in the interviews that they also have special methods to help their children participate in online learning. According to these findings, the researchers also found that parents believe their children are receiving quality education, which can be reflected in their positive views of online learning and their participation. In fact, the current research has provided insights about the basic mechanisms of parental involvement that affect children's academic performance during school closures.