نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 گروه علوم تربیتی- دانشیار دانشگاه شهید مدنی اذربایجان- تبریز- ایران
2 گروه علوم تربیتی -دانشیار روانشناسی تربیتی- دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی - دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان تبریز- ایران
3 کارشناس ارشد روان شناسی تربیتی، دبیرآموزش و پرورش شاغل در شهرسنندج، سنندج، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Simultaneous With Expansion positive psychology , Attention to the Structures of personality Based on cognition Positive Trend was Increasing. One of the most important of these structures is optimism. Another variable that can affect academic optimism is goal orientation . goal orientatons are same reasons or goals of students to engage in specific learning tasks.. Early research focused on two type of goal orientations ; Mastery goals in which the main focus is on mastery of learning tasks, and performance goals whose main focus was on competencies compared to others (Pintrich, 2000). (lin & et al 2017). In other words, the goals set by the students are also different. The main and most central division is the division in which students ; 1- tend to Creating competencies or 2- Demonstrating their competencies to others, which is in fact the same as performance and mastery goal (dwek, 1986). This dualism provided the ground for further progress in this field. Thus, the performance goals were divided into two parts; mastery goals (ie, the desire to show competence) and avoidance performance goals (ie, avoidance of competency) (Elliot & charch, 1997). Later, the dual division of avoidance - the tendency to mastery goals - also expanded. Thus, mastery approach (in the desire to be learning and desire to learn) and mastery avoidance (ie the tendency to avoid misunderstanding or failure in learning). Thus, a four-dimensional model of mastery and performance was created (et al, 2020) . (Tuominen Academic goal orientations are related to academic achievement and study-related activities such as self-regulation. According to theoretical principles, one of the other variables that can be related to students' academic optimism is academic self-regulation (wang & yang, 2020). self-regulation is concentrate of Thoughts, behaviors and emotions to achieve goals (Zimmerman, 1989, 2000) . Self-regulation Persons Are peoples who that select Goals For Self-selection and select strategies that suitable for learning goals maintains their Motivation for learning and Monitoring Your performance and evaluates self improvement toward goals. Self-regulated learning strategies are of four types. three of which are adaptive and one of which is unadaptive ( Zimmerman, 2000); The first strategy is to motivate and accept responsibility for learning by students. This means that they have a responsibility to learn and progress and take responsibility for it. This is clearly a basic prerequisite for learning. The issue of accepting responsibility can manifest itself in preparing for classes, completing assignments on time, working hard, controlling efforts, and also tending to work hard. Ability to focus, The second strategy is self-regulation, which includes focusing on study activities and the ability to maintain control over failures and weaknesses that can make it difficult for students to achieve the tasks at hand. Concentration and attention enable the student to maintain and implement effective learning methods. The third strategy is information processing, ie expansion and reasoning, which represent metacognitive strategies. In fact, it reflects the deeper levels of information processing and has been shown to create active cognitive engagement in learning. But the fourth strategy for self-regulation, is self-handicapping that is incompatible way for self-expression  , and inconsistent motivational strategy to maintain and increase self-esteem. Some students deliberately postpone the study so that if they do not get the desired result, they attribute it to the delay in the study rather than not having a disability. Self-handicapping cause students to focus on other factors instead of focusing on their disabilities. This strategy is non-constructive and especially becomes more non-constructive over time
. The aim of this study was to determine the causal pattern of students' academic goal orientations in academic optimism with a mediating role of self-regulation. The method of this research was descriptive and correlational and the statistical population included all male and female high school students in Sanandaj in the amount of 4300 people. The research questionnaires were distributed among students and collected after their completion. Distorted questionnaires were discarded and full questionnaires were analyzed. According to Morgan's table, 351 of them were to be selected as the sample. Data collection tools were: Elliott and McGregor Objective Orientation Scale Questionnaire (2001), Beauford et al.'s (1995) Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire, and Shannon, Moran et al. (2013) Academic Optimism Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using LISREL software and structural equation modeling. The results of the analysis indicate that; Students' performance orientation does not directly play a significant role in academic optimism, but indirectly plays a role in optimism through academic self-regulation. Academic self-regulation plays a mediating role for both functional and mastery orientations. And mastery orientation with academic self-regulatory mediation, academic optimism, is more effective than functional orientation with self-regulatory mediation (P≥0.05). additionally The results of the analysis showed that the goal orientation of performance , mastery and performance avoidance are not directly related to academic optimism, but mastery of avoidance has a direct negative relationship with academic optimism. This means that the more mastery there is - the greater the feeling that one is more inclined to stay away from learning and learning - the lower one's academic optimism. By being precise in the meaning of mastery orientation and that mastery orientation is merely a desire to know and show good performance or avoid failure and show inability to perform, it seems that the goal orientation structure should not have the necessary energy to influence academic optimism. Have. It was also found that the orientations of mastery and performance are related to self-regulation and both of these orientations have a direct effect on academic self-regulation. On the other hand, it was found that self-regulation has a significant effect on academic optimism. Thus, it can be concluded that among the four goal orientations, the orientations of mastery and performance have an effect on academic optimism through academic self-regulation.From this research, it can be concluded that in order to create academic optimism, with according to the empirical background can lead to academic achievement, it is possible to create a learning atmosphere and context in which mastery orientations are more dominant than avoidance orientations for fostering Self-regulation in students. One of the results of creating self-regulation can be academic optimism, which significantly determines academic achievement. Teachers and those in charge of education can also be made aware that goal orientation does not directly lead to academic optimism, but one should expect self-regulation through which we see academic optimism in students.
The results of this research can be used by researchers and enthusiasts in this field. Teachers can also use the results in teaching and classroom management.