عنوان مقاله [English]
The Comparison of the effectiveness of teaching methods of brainstorming and problem solving on teacher-student interaction
In the traditional educational system, teaching and learning methods are based on listening, verbal expression and memorizing the educational contents, and the emphasis is on passive methods. No attention is paid to the importance of teacher - students interaction, So students' tastes and creativity are ignored, their motivation and interest in learning are lost and it leads to academic failure.
One of the ways to reinforce classroom interactions is the brainstorming method. In this method, the teacher led the student toward the highest level of activity to solve the problems and enable them to work on their own. In 1938, Osborne introduced organized ideation for group. (Furnham & Yazdanpanahi, 1995).
Another active teaching method is problem solving. In this method, the teacher motivates the student by proposing a problem and coerces him to collect information and judge based on it. The teacher should have enough information about the subject and know the resources related to the subject, Also, enough facilities, well-equipped library or a laboratory is a required. Cultivating the seeker's cognitive organization by teaching problem-solving goes back to the philosophical ideas of William James and John Dewey (Kramol, 1993). The problem is a conflict between the existing situation and desired situation (Glover, 2002). In fact, when a person is faced with a situation that he cannot quickly respond to the situation, he faces a problem (Saif, 2002). Problem solving consists of five steps:
Problem identification and definition, information gathering, logical conclusion, test results and evaluation and decision making (Myers, 2004). The application of this method in education dates back to the late 1960s and early 1970s as part of the cognitive-behavioral movement (Azimi et al, 2013).
In addition to the subject matter knowledge, the teacher should have sufficient skills about the methods of educational design and its evaluation. Research results and the advanced learning theories place great emphasis on student participation during their teaching. This study seeks to investigate the role of teaching methods of brainstorming and problem solving on teacher-student interaction in the classroom and examines the following question:
Which of the two methods of brainstorming and problem solving has the greatest impact on teacher-student interaction?
Ninth-grade male students studying in Qods Town in the academic year 2018-2019 formed the statistical population. Two classes were selected as a statistical sample using a two-stage cluster random method. One of the classes was randomly exposed to the independent variable of brainstorming method and the other class was exposed to the independent variable of problem solving method. Given that the selected sample is male, the sex factor was controlled. This research is a quasi-experimental study in which a pre-test-post-test experimental design with two experimental groups was used. Its presentation is as follows:
T_2 X_1 T_1
T_2 X_2 T_1
Findings show that the average post-test of experimental group 1 (brainstorming teaching method) has increased in the dimensions of leadership, supportive behavior, understanding and responsibility for the pre-test. But the scores of uncertainty, dissatisfaction, punishment, and strictness have decreased somewhat. The results also show that the average post-test of experimental group 2 (problem solving teaching method) has shown some increase in all dimensions except dissatisfaction and punishment. The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that the significance level of all four relevant multivariate statistics, namely Pillai effect, Wilks Lambda, hotelling effect and the largest root, is less than 0.05. Thus, the statistically zero hypothesis is rejected and there is a significant difference between the scores of experimental groups 1 and 2 in the amount of teacher-student interaction. Also, the observed level of significance for the differences of leadership subscales, helpful behavior, understanding, and responsibility between experimental groups 1 and 2 is less than 0.05. Therefore, there is a significant difference between experimental groups 1 and 2 in the mentioned subscales. The significance level observed for uncertainty, dissatisfaction, punishment and strictness is more than 0.05, so the null hypothesis is confirmed and concluded that there is no significant difference between experimental groups 1 and 2 in these dimensions.
The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of teaching methods of brainstorming and problem solving on the interaction between teachers and ninth grade male students in Qods Town, Iran. This study sought to answer the question of which methods of teaching: brainstorming and problem solving are most effective on teacher-student interaction. To show the difference between pre-test and post-test scores of experimental groups 1 and 2, the mean scores due to the difference between pre-test and post-test were compared through multivariate analysis of variance. According to the results, brainstorming method is more effective on leadership subscales, helpful behavior, understanding, responsibility, although this difference is not significant for uncertainty, dissatisfaction, punishment and strictness. Descriptive data also showed that the average post-test of the group who were trained in brainstorming has increased in terms of leadership, supportive behavior, understanding and responsibility for the pre-test. But the scores of uncertainty, dissatisfaction, punishment, and strictness have decreased somewhat. The results also show that the average post-test of students who were trained in problem-solving showed some increase in all dimensions except dissatisfaction and punishment. In fact, the results show that students - teachers interaction can be influenced by the teaching method and help to adopt appropriate methods to improve these relationships. If the adopted method, such as brainstorming, is accompanied by dialogue and discussion, naturally the state of interactions will grow even more.
According results, it is suggested that other different teaching methods be compared about the student-teacher interaction variable. Also, in-service courses be held to familiarize teachers with new teaching methods. To generalize the results, it is suggested that a similar research be done in the girls' community as well as in other sections. There were some limitations in the implementation of this study, such as the limited statistical population to boys and caution in generalizing the results to the girl population, as well as the limitation of the research tool to another questionnaire.
Azimi, F., Ghorbanalipoor, M. & Farid, A. (2013). The effectiveness of teaching problem-solving skills in achievement motivation and happiness of girl students in high school in Khoy City in the academic year of 2012-2013. Journal of Research in Teaching, 1(2), 35-42. [in persian].
Behrangi, M.R & Kurdloo, M.(2017). The effect of experimental science teaching on metacognitive learning with educational management model. New Approach Quarterly in Educational Management,8(1). 89 – 116. [in persian].
Furnham, A., & Yazdanpanahi, T. (1995). Personality differencesand group versus individual brainstorming. Journal of educational psychology, 73-80