بررسی روش ها و فنون تدریس از منظر قرآن کریم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزش عالی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 دانش آموخته ارشد مدرسی معارف دانشگاه اصفهان، ایران

3 استادیار گروه حقوق، دانشکده ادبیات، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

هدف: هدف از این مطالعه شناسایی و جمع بندی شیوه های تدریس در فرایند تعلیم و تربیت از دیدگاه قرآن کریم می باشد.
روش: این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی ـ استنتاجی بوده و با مراجعه به کتب و منابع در دسترس و معتبری که حاوی مطالب مورد نظر در ارتباط با موضوع می باشد، اطلاعات لازم استخراج گردیده است. در این پژوهش، کلیه‌ی منابع و مراجع مرتبط با قرآن کـریم و روش-های تدریس به عنوان جامعه ی پژوهش محسوب شده به علاوه در انجام پژوهش، نمونـه گیـری بـه عمـل نیامده و تمامی منابع و مراجع موجود و در دسترس، اعم از کتب، مقالات و گزارش های پژوهشی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. جمع آوری اطلاعات، به صورت فیش برداری از آیات قرآن کریم و ترجمه آیات، کتب تفسیر، کتب تعلیم و تربیـت اسـلامی و کتـب روش های تدریس و مقالات تربیتی تهیه شده در این زمینه، انجام یافته و سپس بر اساس سؤالات مطرح شده در پژوهش، مورد شناسایی و طبقه بندی قرار گرفت است.
نتایج: نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن بود که روش های تفکر، پرسش و پاسخ، مباحثه، ایفای نقش، یادسپاری، گردش علمی و تفحص گروهی، نمایشی، آزمایشگاهی ، و همچنین استفاده از مثل و تشبیه، قصه گویی، تذکر و موعظه، و تبشیر و انذار از جمله روش ها و تکنیک های به کار رفته در قرآن کریم می باشد؛ که از بـین آن ها، روش های پرسش و پاسخ، مباحثه، استفاده از مثل و تشبیه، و داستان-گویی بیشتر از سایر روش‌ها مورد استفاده قرار گرفته اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The teaching method and techniquesin the holy Quran viewpoint

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdollah Rahimi 1
  • Abolhasan Bahmanighaedi 2
  • Saeed Safi shalamzari 3
1 PhD Student in Higher Education Management, Faculty of Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Graduate of the University of Isfahan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Faculty of Literature, Shahrekord University, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study is to identify and summarize teaching methods in the education process is according to the Holy Quran.The Holy Quran has always been an important source of research for Islamic scholars throughout the history of Islamic science and civilization, and through this, numerous sciences and disciplines have been established and developed over time. It is also the most important criterion for measuring and judging scholars who have reached the Islamic community through translation or otherwise. This divine book can direct humanity at any time to direct humanity and provide humanitarian guidance to all classes of human society at any age. Therefore, in order to heal all the threats that threaten his human and spiritual life, man must resort to the Qur'an in order to fulfill his lofty goals and great ideas. It is to think, so that in this heavenly book it is thought of as wise.
Another divine educational tradition in this book is that it guides mankind to the prosperity of his life by showing him the way. According to Allama Tabatabai (RA) (1984), "It is necessary for God to determine the direct intention of his servants in order to lead them to happiness and salvation." It is guidance and education, it has ordered many methods for human education. From the method of inner transformation through the giving of insight and inviting faith and the method of apparent change to create the inner transformation to the method of debate and sermon and the practical and spoken method, has been emphasized in the noble Quran. Considering that education has contributed to the destiny of society and at all stages of its development, and has always expanded itself, as well as carrying and carrying the noblest human aspirations and an unbreakable link with the greatest victories of the great societies of human history. Therefore, it is necessary to choose the appropriate method with the help of the Holy Qur'an in order to achieve the desired goals in the course of the given circumstances. Choosing the right teaching methods allows teachers to choose a framework that fosters student interest, challenges intellectual processes, and creates a space where they are cautious, rather than spending class time recalling and remembering them. And passivity replaces active thinking and dialogue.
It can be said that teaching is an activity that is at the focal point of all the educational elements as the driving force of the formal learning process. And there are dozens of ways to do it. Undoubtedly, this matter has been adhered to by the highest authority in the teaching of the Holy Qur'an and used in the highest ways for this purpose. And the science's job is to help the learner get to the simple to complex layers of science. On the other hand, given the changes in the world, the education system needs to extricate itself from static methods and adapt to environmental changes in order to sustain itself and remain dynamic in such conditions. Give. If the education system, regardless of the environmental conditions, wants to use certain methods forever, it has prepared itself for its own destruction. Therefore, the Qur'an, which has been bestowed upon God by man for education, contains various methods of education used for the flourishing of the human nature, for the Quran is the language of nature and of the human heart. He speaks and wants to transform her from within. To this end, it has used a variety of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral methods that can be subdivided into cognitive, emotional, and behavioral methods.
In the process of educational activities, teachers and school principals are key elements in the transformation of the workforce. Therefore, they must be efficient and effective. Trainers are efficient and effective educators who are familiar with theories, principles, principles and methods of education and provide an environment with artistic and contingent insights that, instead of imparting information and imposing thought, a sense of security, competence, Enhance self-control and self-development in learners so that they can be the architects of their own education. However, many accepted teaching practices are influenced by past teaching methods based on traditional viewpoints, which essentially teach the practice of 'expressing' and presenting facts and information to learners. They are considered. But traditional education as a separate, independent curriculum cannot meet the needs of education in the 21st century. Given the importance of Quranic teachings in reaching humanity for the ultimate goal of creation and life of the Tayyeb, the Qur'an has been expressed as one of the first and most important values of education in the education system of the Islamic Republic of Iran. As stated in the document on the fundamental evolution of education, in relation to education and its most important educational purpose: "The most important educational goal of an Islamic society is to adhere to the ethical and humane virtues and virtues of the Qur'an."
Methodology : This research is of descriptive-inferential type and the necessary information has been extracted by referring to the available and valid books and sources that contain the desired materials related to the subject. In this study, the main source is the Holy Quran and other books, including interpretations related to the Quran, were considered secondary sources. In the present study, statistical tests are not used, the method of data analysis was mainly based on citation or argument. Data collection was done by taking notes from the verses of the Holy Quran and translating verses, commentary books, books on Islamic education and textbooks, and teaching methods and educational articles prepared in this field, and then based on the questions raised in the research has been identified and classified.
Conclusion: The research results indicated that the methods of thinking, questioning and answering, discussion, role-playing, memorization, scientific rotation and group research, drama, laboratory, as well as the use of proverbs and similes, storytelling, reminders and sermons, and Preaching and warning are among the methods and techniques used in the Holy Qur'an that among them, question and answer methods, discussion, use of proverbs and similes, and storytelling have been emphasized more than other methods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Educational verses of the Holy Quran
  • teaching methods
  • teaching techniques