واکاوی ماهیت راهیابانه تدریس: رویکرد مطلوب در تبیین کنش معلمی مبتنی بر موقعیت عمل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه‌ریزی درسی- گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران؛

2 دانشیارگروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران؛

3 استاد گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران؛

4 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

هدف: هدف از پژوهش حاضر، واکاوی مفهومی ماهیت راهیابانه (هیوریستیک) تدریس است.
روش: به‌منظور نیل به این هدف از روش تحلیلی- مفهومی از نوع قیاسی استفاده شده است. در این مسیر ابتدا با بررسی منابع مربوط به تدریس و شناسایی رویکردهای عمده در تبیین ماهیت آن، اصلی‌ترین عناصر ماهوی در تبیین آن شناسایی و نقش موقعیت عمل آشکارشده است. سپس براساس نتایج حاصل از سنتز پژوهی پژوهش‌ها درباره مفهوم هیوریستیک شبکه مفهومی حول این مفهوم شناسایی شد و بر آن اساس محقق تعریف مختار و روشن خود را از این مفهوم ارائه داده است و ماهیت تدریس را با توجه به این مفهوم واکاوی نموده است.
یافته‌ها: یافته‌ها نشان داد «هیوریستیک» به‌عنوان مفهومی که تبیین‌کننده ماهیت عمل در موقعیت‌های بدیع و یکتای تصمیم‌گیری و حل مسأله است، برای تبیین بسیاری از وظایف تدریس قابل‌استفاده است. بر این اساس مؤلفه‌های مهم تدریس راهیابانه در موقعیت تدریس شناسایی و معرفی‌شده‌اند. عناصری چون «ظهور روابط اجتماعی جدید»، «تجربیات گذشته»، «تعاملات و تعارضات»، «دانش به‌عنوان منبع اقتدار» و «جریان اطلاعات» به‌عنوان اصلی‌ترین منابع پیچیدگی‌های موقعیت تدریس شناسایی‌شده‌اند که تشکیل‌دهنده ماهیت راهیابانه تدریس هستند.

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