تحلیلی از اثربخشی تدریس به شیوه سماعی در درس عروض، یک مطالعه خود مردم نگارانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

هدف: هدف این پژوهش بیان تحلیل و تجارب تحصیل و تدریس نویسنده از درس عروض با روش خود مردم نگاری است.
روش: این روش رویکردی کیفی و خود-مردم‌نگارانه دارد. منبع داده های پژوهش، تجارب نگارنده به عنوان یکی از استادان دانشگاه در زمان تحصیل و تدریس درس عروض است که به شیوه روایتگری تنظیم و روایت های پژوهشگر در ارتباط شیوه آموزش ابداعی درس عروض تبیین و تفسیر شده است.
یافته های پژوهش: یافته های پژوهش بیانگر این است که روش سنتی تدریس عروض، آموزش این درس را برای فراگیران دشوار و کسل کننده کرده بود. روایتگر مورد مطالعه با تجربه این مشکلات در دوران دانشجویی، روشی تازه ابداع کرد. در این روش برای حاکم کردن پذیرش آموزش سماعی لازم بود ابتدا پیش‌شرط‌هایی چون آموزش واج، هجا، تقطیع، املای عروضی و افاعیل عروضی رعایت شود؛ سپس با تکیه بر فراهم آوردن طرح درس مناسب با تکیه بر استراتژی کلان(در سطح دانشگاه ها و مراکز آموزشی)و استراتژی خرد(در سطح کلاس درس) به نیازهای آموزشی فراگیران در این زمینه پاسخ داده شود. فراهم کردن نمونه های جذاب شعری، استفاده از بحور پرکاربرد و سالم، آموزش رهاسازی ذهن، ارائه نمونه های سازگار با مصادیق فرهنگی و متناسب با روحیه و سن دانشجویان و در نهایت استفاده از راهبردهای یاددهی_ یادگیری مشارکتی این درس را به یکی از دروس جذّاب و فراگیری موفقیت آمیز سماعی اوزان و بحور عروضی تبدیل کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analysis of the Effectiveness By hearing Teaching, Method in the prosody Lesson, an Ethnographic Self-Study

چکیده [English]

A Description for irregular teaching of prosodic lessons: a self-ethnographic study
Sayyed Ahmad Parsa
Professor of Persian language and literature, University of Kurdestan

Abstract:
Purpose: the purpose of this research is showing and analyzing of the author experiences through his own learning and teaching at prosodic lessons in the form of a self-ethnographic study.
This is done by sharing the author's experiences during his studies and teaching which has resulted in increasing the impact of learners' motivation to learn this lesson by changing their attitude towards prosodic lessons. Using participatory teaching-learning strategies and providing prerequisites for teaching this lesson has resulted in these positive learning outcomes.
Method: As a qualitative research, this study carried out via a self-ethnographic study. The data source for this research is experiences and memories of one of UoK's senior lecturer (the author) in the field of prosody and its teaching in pre-university, university and in-service training of educators, which were explained, analyzed and organized in a narrative style based on the researcher’s narrations.
Among the qualitative methods, auto-ethnography has been used in this study. This method is one of the newest research methods in the qualitative approach and helps researchers to produce knowledge using personal life experiences or "biological experience" (Fazeli, 2017).
By adopting a self-critical approach in the form of retrospective and selective, an auto-ethnographer writes about his/her experiences that are essentially rooted in a part of a culture or derived from a particular cultural identity (Pitard, 2019).
To validate the research, a researcher-made questionnaire was used, the validity of which was confirmed by several instructors who taught this lesson, and it was distributed among teachers in different cities. Eighty-five percent did not feel well about the lesson, 10 percent said they had been forced to teach it, Only 5% expressed interest, that they were only able to identify poetic rhythm by quantitative scanning. These experiences were provided to a number of literature teachers in District One of Sanandaj during a training course, the feedback of which was a complete success (retraining). I also asked an educational sciences colleague from the University to review all the steps as an outside observer.

Result: findings show that the traditional methods for prosodic, makes it boring and a bit difficult for the students. The subject (the faculty that we talk about) has invented a new method according to his own experiences about this kind of problems in his schooling period.
This method is taught collectively and simultaneously repeats by learners.This method is taught collectively and simultaneously repeats by learners. Therefore, individual questions about meter recognition by hearing, especially at the beginning of the semester, should be strictly avoided.
The nature of this study is to describe the achievement of this teaching method and how to implement it. The most appropriate method was to use auto-ethnography. Therefore, by choosing this method, the researcher first recounted his teaching experiences using this method; then recounted the factors that motivated him to find a new way to teach the subject of prosodic, and finally represented his teaching experiences with the aim of sharing these experiences with colleagues and teachers of the subject.
This model was implemented in a class of 40 people for one semester and at the end of the semester students were tested orally and in writing. The results showed the complete success of this educational model in learning Prosodic. The nature of this study is to describe the achievement of this teaching method and how to implement it. The results showed the complete success of this educational model in learning pronouns, so that 85% of the learners could recognize all contexts of agreed elements, alternating elements (distance) and the various elements well by hearing. 15 percent of learners recognized 90 percent of the meter, but sometimes had little difficulty recognizing various elements meter. The result also showed the ability to recognize the appropriateness or disproportion of the meter of the poems with their content in learners. The researcher implemented this project with long intervals both in the pre-university and undergraduate levels of Persian literature, both of which were successful; With the difference that the learning process in pre-university learners was faster than university students due to lack of mental background But in literature students having a negative mental background, due to traditional education because of passing this course in high school, along with mental fragmentation when asking to repeat the meter of the poem aloud, in the first two or three sessions, in the learning process creates noise. This problem was solved by teaching the release of the mind and reminding not to fragment the meter in the mind, and this issue increased their self-confidence and made them more credible in this teaching method. Priority of teaching the meter of agreed elements, alternating elements (distance) and the various elements , respectively, using poems appropriate to the interest and age of the learners, avoiding hymns with verbal and spiritual conviction, asking students to participate in group activities based on Repeating meter groups , pounding slowly on the floor or pounding the hand on the table evenly with the rhythm of the poem, while creating a happy atmosphere for students, played a key role in making them more confident in succeeding in learning the prosodic.

In this method because we want to dominate the acceptance of irregular teaching, first it was necessary to notice some preconditions like phoneme, poetical invective, scansion, metrical spelling, metrical teeth, then rely on preparing a suitable lesson plan rely on macro-strategy (at university level and educational centers) and micro-strategy (at class level) we can answer their educational needs.
Preparing interesting examples of poems, using functional and soft metrics, educating mind triggering, presenting examples that has harmony with cultures and be adequate with the student’s age and emotional, and finally using participatory learning-teaching guidelines makes this lesson one of the interesting lessons for the students and they successfully could learn the rhythm and meter, educating mind triggering, presenting examples that has harmony.
Key words: irregular teaching, prosodic, rhythm, music, auto-ethnography.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: irregular teaching
  • prosody
  • rhythm
  • music
  • auto-ethnography