عنوان مقاله [English]
The field of art and education is so close that some thinkers of art and aesthetics consider the foundation of education (Karami and Abedi, 2017). The purpose of aesthetic education is to create aesthetic experiences. This type of experience indicates the presence of the element of pleasure in various human experiences (Sharifzadeh, Baezat and Jalalian Rad, 2016). Broudy (1994) also considers the development of pleasure and satisfaction capacity of "aesthetic satisfaction" as one of the reasons for justifying and confirming aesthetic education. He considers aesthetic knowledge as a unique kind of knowledge in which decoding takes place. This type of knowledge can be used in educational systems when, in addition to paying attention to the cognitive and intellectual field, it also pays attention to other fields, including the field of aesthetics. This attention in the teacher education system is doubled due to the artistic characteristics of the teacher (Emam Jomeh and Mehr Mohammadi, 2006). Due to the fact that aesthetic education has been marginalized for reasons such as having priority in the field of cognition, lack of attitude towards aesthetic education, lack of awareness of its importance, consequences and benefits, lack of attention to applied art, etc. Necessary reforms should be made to recognize the importance and application of art curriculum in order to eliminate the shortcomings and needs of student teachers (Kian and Mehr Mohammadi, 2013), therefore, teacher training is a good place to understand and be aware of these principles and based on the program Formal and non-formal education provided the basis for teacher training with desirable professional competencies. In the meantime, the competence of aesthetic educators, which indicates having diverse and attractive strategies based on aesthetics and innovation, and considering different cognitive, social, emotional and skill areas, has a higher priority and is used wisely. They facilitate the achievement of educational goals in Farhangian University, in accordance with the time and place requirements. Educational strategies are one of the important factors in educational design; Because it determines the form of teacher and student activity in the classroom. Aesthetic-based educational strategies, in addition to being diverse, are enjoyable, productive, innovative, and exciting, and the learner tends to repeat them, so when subjects are presented in schools with strategies such as storytelling, drama, imagination, and the use of artistic symbols, The emotional relationship between the speaker and the audience is strengthened, learners follow the subjects with interest and a positive attitude and have a better performance in understanding the relationships of existence (Kharazi and Talkhabi, 2017). Wilcox (2019) emphasizes the creation of a safe psychological art class in which learners can discuss, produce, discover, test, "fail" and succeed in the social, emotional nature Therefore, this research intends to identify the educational strategies of aesthetic education in teacher training system and provide new insights based on aesthetic education. Therefore, while critically analyzing the prescription curriculum of aesthetic education in teacher training system, educational paths of aesthetic education have been identified and presented.
This research has a qualitative strategy. To answer the first question, the descriptive-analytical method was used and according to Aisener, the method of "educational expertise and educational criticism" was used. The statistical and sample population in this section was the undergraduate curriculum at Farhangian University. To answer the second question, using the fundamental theory method and purposive sampling method, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 experts in the field of educational sciences, art and aesthetics to reach theoretical saturation. The collected data were analyzed by Strauss and Corbin method in three steps (open, axial and selective coding) and Delphi method was used for validation and component approval
At present, little attention has been paid to aesthetic education in all undergraduate disciplines of Farhangian University (on average, nearly 2% of the units in each field) and the skill fields of article 28 students were deprived of it, but this amount, with the view of educating the general aesthetics to the curriculum and the mission of the student teachers in the implementation and presentation of aesthetic content that should lead to valuable and meaningful learning and deep understanding and understanding It is insignificant and expandable and can be extended to at least 5 units (two theoretical units of three practical units) in all disciplines. In addition, the professors who teach these courses should have scientific, practical, ethical, artistic and aesthetic competencies and these aesthetic activities are tailored to the teaching profession. One of the most important and practical aesthetic skills in all fields of education and disciplines is orly art and calligraphy. The art of ore can be included in the curriculum of all disciplines (except elementary education) by increasing the number of language courses in education, and calligraphy can be included in the curriculum of all disciplines (except elementary education) by increasing the course of art application in the following education. Also, all the fields of Article 28 can have at least one workshop of three-hour aesthetic training.
The courses related to aesthetic education need to be reviewed in number and content. In the meantime, increasing the number of aesthetic training units in the field of exceptional children's education, and including them in the curriculum of different majors of 28 provision of apprentices is a priority. Based on the findings of the data analysis, the educational strategies of aesthetic education are: physical aesthetics, micro-aesthetic skills, aesthetic-based methods, aesthetic teaching, student-centered aesthetic strategies, echnology-based aesthetic methods, aesthetic experiences, master aesthetic literacy, general aesthetic strategies, as well as the core category of "aesthetic strategies" and the most important component of educational strategies "integration and diversity".
The identified strategies in this study have two sides. In the first aspect, it covers aesthetic education in teacher training, and secondly it is used in teaching other courses and disciplines. Although it is not possible to introduce a specific strategy or approach as the best method in all educational situations, but aesthetic strategies have capacities and elements that, on the condition of proper design and implementation, can pave the way for mechanical, dry and free classes of innovation, participation and interaction and develop the scope of teacher training strategies. In addition, it should be emphasized on the aesthetic teacher and his continuous support and empowerment in this type of strategies which plays a key role, because the developments in the teacher's education system can only be followed by the role of the teacher's model and transformational role. Using aesthetic guides, it can be expected that future teachers will make a change in school educational strategies and students will experience new and enjoyable experiences.