عنوان مقاله [English]
Emotional literacy refers to the ability to understand emotions, listen to others, sympathize and empathize with their emotions, and be able to express emotions; in other words, emotional literacy involves the ability to understand, express, and manage one's emotions and respond to other people's emotions. According to previous research, this skill has a positive effect on students 'academic achievement, helps students adapt to the school environment, reduces students' disruptive behaviors, and promotes student-teacher relationships and peer relationships. Also, the positive effects of emotional literacy include improving relationships, feelings of friendship and cooperation between people, and the consequences of low emotional literacy include poor relationships, low emotions, and low self-esteem, and inappropriate mood. Teachers play an important role in students 'emotions, and their teaching has an effect on students' positive and negative emotions. Given that emotional literacy is a skill, it can be said that learning this skill can be related to variables related to teacher teaching in elementary school, because the primary school teacher is in a unique situation that his behavior helps to the emotional and social development of students.
Teachers, in essential skills such as accepting negative emotions and coping with them, act as models for children. In managing the social and emotional classroom, teachers use self-regulation, self-monitoring, and social skills in classroom settings, and this has been shown to reduce the negative social interactions of the classroom and increase students' academic achievement. In social-emotional classroom management, teachers use self-regulation, self-monitoring, and social skills in classroom settings, and this has been shown to reduce the negative social interactions of the classroom and increase students' academic achievement. Many teachers believe that social-emotional learning is very important; they believe that schools should play an active role and that current academic demands reduce the opportunity for social-emotional learning. Teachers can regulate their excitement in healthy ways that facilitate the positive consequences of the class without compromising their health. In other words, when teachers experience their mastery of these social and emotional challenges, teaching becomes more enjoyable and more effective.
Teacher-student interaction is often characterized by teacher-student closeness and conflict. The teacher-student closeness is defined as the degree of "positive interaction, communication, and warm feelings between learners and teachers". Teacher-student conflict is defined as the degree of "negative interaction and negative impact" between learners and teachers. Students who have a closeness relationship with their teachers have shown better cognitive skills in language and math. Students whose relationships with teachers are determined by conflict are more likely to exhibit behavioral problems and are likely to exhibit less behavioral competence.
No research has been done on the relationship between classroom management based on socio-emotional learning and emotional literacy of students, but research has shown that direct education is the highest rate of teaching among teachers, which is associated with low levels of positive emotions and high levels of fatigue in students. Emotional-based social learning programs that aim to increase classroom management skills in teachers improve students 'problem-solving and anger management skills and facilitate students' acquisition of social skills; in addition, these programs facilitate teacher-student interaction. One meta-analysis showed that classroom management skills affect students' academic, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Elsewhere, the social-emotional learning of the classroom environment has been shown to have a positive effect on students' social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance. It has also been suggested that teacher classroom management influences students' interests and motivation.
Also, no research has been reported on the relationship between teacher-student interaction and students 'emotional literacy until the study was conducted, but related research has confirmed the teacher-student interaction with students' emotional intelligence. Research has shown that when students have a close relationship with the teacher, they are actively involved in classroom activities, and the teacher's positive attitude toward students has a positive effect on their self-regulatory behavior (one of the dimensions of emotional literacy). In addition, another study found that teacher-student relationship was positively associated with students' social skills (an emotional literacy dimension). Other research has shown that a better and much closer teacher-student relationship is associated with increased motivation (an emotional literacy dimension) of students. The results of a study also show that teacher-student conflict in the United States and of teacher-student closeness education in Turkey are significantly related to students' self-regulation (an emotional literacy dimension). The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between classroom management through social and emotional learning and teacher-student interaction with emotional literacy in elementary students in the academic year of 2018-2019.
The research method was descriptive-correlation. The statistical population of the study consisted of all elementary teachers in Malayer city. The sample size was 247 elementary teachers selected by stratified random sampling. Each teacher randomly completed questionnaires for 3 students in their class. Data were collected using Socio-Emotional Classroom Management, Teacher-Student Relationship scale, and Teacher Version Emotional Literacy Assessment Instrument. Pearson correlation and multivariate regression by the stepwise method were used to analyze the data.
The results indicated a positive relationship between socio-emotional classroom management and its dimensions with emotional literacy. There was also a positive relationship between teacher-student closeness with emotional literacy and a negative relationship between teacher-student conflicts with emotional literacy. According to the results of regression, the contribution of emotional social class management and teacher-student closeness in predicting emotional literacy was positive and significant. It can be said that when teachers in the classroom use classroom management based on socio-emotional learning, they will play a major role in instilling a sense of cohession among students and realizing the potentials and identity formation of students. Appropriate behavior with students in the classroom, creating a classroom with social and emotional security as well as building self-confidence and motivation in students in an effort to achieve personal can increase students' emotional literacy. The teacher-student relationship is likely to increase the teacher's emotional state to the students, and because students feel good about this close relationship, they try to express the right emotions in the classroom and positive feedback from the teacher led to these emotion expressions, which leads to an increase in emotional literacy. Based on the findings, it is suggested that socio-emotional classroom management be taught to teachers and that teacher-student relationship be included in in-service teacher programs.