ترکیب عوامل انگیزشی و کنترل ارادی در آموزش الکترونیکی و تأثیر آن بر یادگیری و انگیزش دانشجویان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای تکنولوژی آموزشی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران؛

2 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران؛

3 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

هدف: پژوهش حاضر با هدف ترکیب عوامل انگیزشی و کنترل ارادی در آموزش الکترونیکی و تأثیر آن بر یادگیری و انگیزش یادگیرندگان انجام شد.
روش: به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر عوامل انگیزشی و کنترل ارادی، با به‌کارگیری یک طرح شبه‌ آزمایشی و با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس، تعداد 85 نفر از دانشجویان مقطع کارشناسی پردیس شهید مدرسِ دانشگاه فرهنگیان کردستان (جامعه آماری پژوهش) انتخاب، و در دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل همرا با پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون جایگزین شدند. آموزش الکترونیکی طراحی شده برای گروه کنترل با استفاده از الگوی طراحی آموزشی مریل (نظریه نمایش اجزاء) و با تلفیق عناصر انگیزشی الگوی کلر، و برای گروه آزمایش با استفاده از الگوی طراحی آموزشی مریل و با تلفیق عناصر انگیزشی الگوی کلر به اضافه پیام‌‌ها و راهبرد‌های کنترل ارادی طراحی گردید. عوامل انگیزشی و کنترل ارادی براساس الگوی انگیزشی کلر(ARCS) برای طراحی انگیزشی و نظریه‌های کنترل عمل کوهل، کاربردی کردن مقاصد گولویزر و خودتنظیمی ‌زیمرمن برای کنترل ارادی با هم تلفیق شدند. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌‌ها از طریق آزمون تحلیل کوواریانس و با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS نسخه 21 انجام شد.
یافته‌ها: یافته‌‌ها نشان داد که با وجود عدم تفاوت اولیه بین گروه‌ها، نمرات یادگیری گروه آزمایش افزایش و همچنین سطح انگیزش دانشجویان به‌ویژه در دو عنصر ارتباط و اطمینان ارتقاء یافته است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


References:

 

Achtziger, A., Gollwitzer, P.M. (2017). Motivation and Action, 4th Edition, Cambridge University Press.

Amitage, C.J. (2007). Effects of an implementation intention-based intervention on fruit consumption. Psychology and Health, 22(8): 917-928.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Brophy, J. (2010). Motivating students to learn (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Brass, Marcel, Lynn, Margaret, Demanet, Jelle & Rigoni, David (2013). Imaging volition: what the brain can tell us about the will. Experimental brain research, 229 (3): 301-312

Cain, J. (2008). An analysis of motivation orientations and social in- teractions on successful And  poor learners in an e-learning environ- ment. Doctoral Dissertation, Tui University, College of Education, Available Online at ProQuest.

Carr, S. (2008). As distance education comes of age, the challenge is keeping the students. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(23): 39-41.

Chang, M.M., & Lehman, J. (2002). Learning foreign language through an interactive multimedia program: An experimental study on the effects of the relevance component of the ARCS model. CALICO Journal, 20(1): 81-98.

Corno, L. (2004). Introduction to the special issue work habits and work styles: Volition in education. Teachers College Record, 106: 1669-1694.

Deimann, M., Bastiaens, T. (2010). The role of volition in distance education: An

Exploration of its capacities. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11(1): 1-16.

Diffenbach, Naime B. (1991). Validation of attention and confidence as independent components of the ARCS motivational model. Unpublished PhD thesis,  Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.

Di Serio, Angela, Ibanez, Maria, Kloos, Carlos (2013). Impact of an augmented reality system on students’ motivation for a visual art course, Computers & Education, (68): 586-596,  Elsevier.

Fardanesh, H., Ebrahimzade, E., Sarmadi, M.R, Rezaee, M, Omrani, S. (2012). Comparison of Learning and Motivation of Medical Society E-Learning By combining  educational and motivational design models, Journal of Medical Education, (12): 364-376, [In Persian].

Gallo, I. S., Keil, A., McCulloch, K. C., Rockstroh, B. R., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Strategic automation of emotion regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(1): 11-31.

Gollwitzer, P.M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54(7): 493-503.

Gollwitzer, P.M. (2012). Mindset theory of action  phases. In P. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, &

E. T. Higgins (Eds), Handbook of theories of social psychology. London: Sage Publications.

Gollwitzer, A., Schwörer, B., Stern, C., Gollwitzer, P. M., Bargh, J. A. (2017). Up and down regulation of a

highly automatic process: Implementation intentions can both increase and decrease social projection. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 70, 19-26

Gross, J. J. (2008). Emotion regulation. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett  (Eds.),    Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 497–512). New York, NY: Guilford.

Heckhausen, Jutta (2007): The Motivation-Volition Divide and Its Resolution in Action-Phase Models of Developmental Regulation, Research in Human Development, 4:3-4, 163-180.

Im. Y-W. (2007). A substantial study on the relationship between students' variables and

dropout   in cyber university. Journal of the Korean Association of Information Education, 11(2): 205-219.

Juutinen, S., Saariluoma, P. (2010). Emotional obstacles for e-learning - a user Psychological analysis, European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning, 2010(I), Retrieved from http:// www.eurodl.org/?article=402.

Kehr, H.M. (2004). Integrating implicit motives, explicit motives, and perceived abilities: The compensatorymodel of work motivation and volition. Academy of Management  Review, 29(3): 479-499.

 Keller, J.M. (1999). Using the ARCS Motivational Process in Computer-Based Instruction and Distance Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 78: 39-47.

Keller, J. M. (2008). First principles of motivation to learn and e3-learning. Distance Education, 29(2):175-185.

Keller, J.M. (2010). Motivational Design for Learning and Performance, The ARCS Model Approach, Springer.

Keller, J.M., Susuki, K. (2004). Learner motivation and E-learning design:  a multinationally validated process, Journal of Educational Media, 29(3).

Kim, C., Hodges, C.B. (2012). Effects of an emotion control treatment on academic

emotions, motivation and achievement in an online mathematics course. Instructional Science, 40(1):173-192.

Kim, C., & Bennekin, Kimberly(2016). The effectiveness of volition support (VoS) in promoting

students’ effort regulation and performance in an online mathematics course, Instr Sci (44): 359-377. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kuhl, J. (1987). Action control: The maintenance of motivational states. In F. Halisch & J. Kuhl(Eds.), Motivation, intention and volition (pp. 279–291). Berlin: Springer.

Lee, Y., Choi, J., Kim, T. (2013). Discriminating factors between completers of and dropouts from online learning courses. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(2): 328-337.

Leroy, V., Gre´goire, J., Magen, E., Gross, J.J., Mikolajczak, M. (2012). Resisting the Sirens of temptation while studying: Using reappraisal to increase focus, enthusiasm, and  performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(2): 263-268.

Levy, Y. (2007). Comparing  dropouts and persistence in e-learning courses. Computers & Education, 48 (2):185-204.

Margueratt, Dennis (2007). Improving learning motivation through enhancing Instructional design,  A thesis submitted to the Athabasca University Governing Counci  in partial fulfillment Of the requirements for the degree of Master of distance education.

Marshal, James, Wilson, Matthew  (2013). Motivating e-learner: Application of the ARCS

Model to e-learning for San Diego Zoo Global Animal Care Professionals, The Journal of Applied Instructional Design, 3(2).

Mayer, R. E. (2014). Incorporating motivation into multimedia learning. Learning and Instruction, 29:171-173.

Merrill, M.D. (1983). Component Display Theory, In C. M. Reigeluth, Instructional Design Theories and Models, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum  Asso Publishers.

Molaee, Z., Dortaj, F.  (2015). Improving L2 learning: An ARCS instructional- motivational approach. Social and Behavioral Sciences (171): 1214- 1222. www.sciencedirect.com.

Novak, E. (2014). Toward a mathematical model of motivation, volition, and performance, Computers & Education (74): 73-80. Avalable in www. Elsevier. Com.

Oettingen, G. Schrage, J. Gollwitzer, P. (2016). Volition. In Corno, L., Anderman, E. (Eds.) Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). Florence, US: Routledge.

Park, J.-H., Choi, H. J. (2009). Factors influencing adult learners’ decision to drop out or persist in online learning. Educational Technology & Society, 12(4): 207-217.

Richey, Elizabeth. J & Nokes- Malach, Timothy. J (2013). How much is too much? Learning and motivation effects of adding instructional explanations to worked examples. Learning and Instruction (25) 104-124.

Schunk, D. H., Usher, E. L. (2012). Social cognitive theory and motivation. In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of human motivation (pp. 13–27). Oxford, UK: Oxford UniversityPress.

Schunk, D.H., Meece, J.L., Pintrich, P.R. (2014). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Schu¨z, B., Sniehotta, F.F., Schwarzer, R. (2007). Stage-specific effects of an action Contro  intervention on dental flossing. Health Education Research, 22(3): 332-341.

Song, S.H., Keller, J.M.(2001). Effectiveness of motivationally adaptive computer- assisted instruction on the dynamic aspects of motivation. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 49(2): 5-22.

Svetkey, L.P., Stevens, V.J., Brantley, P.J., Appel, L.J., Hollis, J.F., Vollmer, W.M. (2008). Comparison of strategies for sustaining weight loss: The weight loss maintenance randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299(10): 1139-1148.

Verbert, K., Manouselis, N., Ochoa, X., Wolpers, M., Drachsler, H., Bosnic, I., Duval, E. (2012). Context-Aware Recommender Systems for Learning: A Survey and Future Challenges, IEEE ransactions on Learning Technologies, 5(4): 318-335.

Zhang, Y., Cooke, R. (2012). Using a combined motivational and volitional intervention to promote exercise and healthy dietary behaviour among undergraduates. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 95(2): 215-223.

Zimmerman, B.J. (1998). Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self- regulatory perspective. Educational Psychologist, 33(2/3): 73-86.